Cambodia

GARMENT WORKER NEEDS ASSESSMENT DURING COVID19

The COVID19 pandemic has severely impacted the garment industry in Cambodia. As of July 2020, over 400 factories have temporarily or permanently closed down and over 150,000 workers are out of work.1 The garment industry employs approximately 750,000 workers in Cambodia, 89% of whom are women.
CARE’s Rapid Gender Analysis demonstrates the disproportionate impact that COVID19 has had on women in Cambodia and around the world. A lot of attention has been placed on the garment industry, but there is little detailed information available from the workers themselves on the impact of the pandemic and what support they need.
The objectives of this needs assessment are to:
• Better understand the needs of women garment workers during the COVID19 pandemic
• Develop evidence-based recommendations for CARE and civil society partners, workers’ organizations,
employers, brands and government stakeholders in Cambodia on how to best address the needs of women
garment workers during the COVID19 pandemic. Read More...

Cambodia COVID-19 Rapid Gender Analysis

The number of COVID-19 cases in Cambodia is quite low (141) however the impact on global supply chains and the livelihood of thousands of factory and migrant workers, who are mostly women, is immense. The loss of income could potentially push families back into poverty and the value of unpaid care work which will increase during the pandemic, is not measured in financial terms, nor seen as a valuable contribution. Additionally, the growth of women’s empowerment which is strongly linked to financial contributions to the household, will decline.

Women and girls in Cambodia face inequalities in many areas such as in employment and payment, division of domestic labour, decision making and participation. Those are likely to further increase in the course of the COVID-19 pandemic. An area of specific concern is in the education of girls and boys, from poor families, who do not have the technical infrastructure and capacity to support online home schooling.

The current health system does not have the capacity to deal with an increasing number of COVID-19 cases. Sub- national health facilities are considered low quality and previous health crisis showed that patients will directly consult provincial and national facilities which is going to exceed their capacity.

There is still uncertainty about transmission of COVID-19 which causes fear and creates potential for rumours causing
stigmatisation and discrimination of certain population groups such as foreigners, women working with foreigners as in bar work and Muslim groups.

Gender based violence is common and widely accepted in Cambodia. Globally, intimate partner violence (IPV) may be the most common type of violence women and girls experience during emergencies. In the context of COVID-19 quarantine and isolation measures, IPV has the potential to dramatically increase for women and girls. Life-saving care and support to GBV survivors may be disrupted when front-line service providers and systems such as health, policing and social welfare are overburdened and preoccupied with handling COVID- 19 cases. Restrictions on mobility also mean that women are particularly exposed to intimate-partner violence at home with limited options for accessing support services. Read More...

Education for Ethnic Minorities Program: Cambodia

Since 2002, CARE1 has worked in partnership with the Royal Government of Cambodia through the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sport (MoEYS) and other stakeholders such as the United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF) to develop and implement a multi-lingual education (MLE) model within the Education for Ethnic Minorities (EEM) program. The total amount of funding contributed to this Program since 2002 is AUD17.5million by 24 donors, not including donations from the Australian public.

The MLE model aims to increase ethnolinguistic minority children’s access to, and the quality of, primary and secondary education. Ethnolinguistic minorities (hereafter referred to as ethnic minorities) are groups of people who share a culture and/or ethnicity and/or language that distinguishes them from other groups of people and are either fewer in terms of number or less prestigious in terms of power than the dominant groups in the state.

Therefore, the purpose of this evaluation was to:
1. Document the impact of the EEM program, with a view to influencing other donors or national governments in the South East Asia region to replicate the model.
2. Document successful strategies for ensuring sustainability of the model through government systems. Read More...

Desk review to conduct assessment of ‘value for money’ provided through CARE International’s programmes to vulnerable and marginalised populations in Asia

This case study has been prepared as part of a study commissioned by CARE International (CI) to assess its long-term impact achieved in the Asia Pacific region between 2005 and 2010. As part of this process CI explored the extent to which socio-economic cost benefit analysis could be applied on a sample of CI projects, using an adapted form of the Social Return on Investment (SROI) methodology1.
The aim of the study was to gain a better understanding of CI’s ability to deliver added benefit and value to participating communities and their societies, given invested resources, whilst testing the feasibility of applying an adapted form of SROI to projects. The study is also expected to contribute to a wider discussion on the usefulness, and applicability, of demonstrating value for money within the contexts CI works.
Given CI’s focus on empowerment, and especially of marginalised and vulnerable women, this case study presents the analysis and findings of four projects: Plantation Community Empowerment Project (PCEP), Sri Lanka Social & Economic Transformation of the Ultra Poor (SETU), Bangladesh Integrated Rural Development and Disaster Mitigation (IRDM), Cambodia Poverty Alleviation in Remote Upland Areas (PARUA), Laos
It is important to note that the projects selected for analysis were initiatives within wider programmes and, as such, were not intended to be illustrative of the overall programme’s magnitude or effectiveness. The SROI methodology is a good fit for CI’s projects due to its participatory nature and valuation of things that matter to stakeholders. However, due to the desk-based nature of this study, these findings should be seen as purely indicative as field research would be required to build a definitive and an accurate picture of impact. Read More...

Labour Rights for Female Construction Workers Cambodia

CARE International in Cambodia (CARE) implemented the three-year Labour Rights for Female Construction Workers (LRCW) project, with funding from the European Union and the Austrian Development Agency, from January 2016 to December 2018 to enhance the protections for women in the construction sector. The project aimed to strengthen the capacity of female construction workers, civil society and government, and increase the voice and influence of female construction workers. The LRCW project partners included the Ministry of Labour and Vocational Training (MoLVT), Cambodian Women for Peace and Development (CWPD), Legal Support for Children and Women (LSCW) and the Building and Wood Workers Trade Union Federation of Cambodia (BWTUC). The target areas included seven districts in Phnom Penh.
The purpose of the evaluation was to assess the progress towards the project’s goal and
outcomes, to evaluate the relevance, effectiveness, efficiency, impact and sustainability of the
project, to capture lessons learnt, and generate key recommendations for future programming.
The evaluation included quantitative and qualitative methods involving a desk review, interviews
with 171 female construction workers, separate group discussions with 26 female and male
construction workers, and individual interviews with 21 project partner staff and other key
stakeholders. The evaluation took place from 25 January to 25 March 2019, including visits to
ten construction sites in five districts around Phnom Penh. Read More...

COMMUNICATION FOR EDUCATION AND IMPROVED SCHOOL GOVERNANCE

The present report describes an internal assessment of the impact of the Communication for Education Project (C4E) implemented by CARE in Ratanak Kiri and Mondulkiri Provinces. Under the project, a communication for development campaign was designed by CARE, in collaboration with UNICEF, MoEYS/PED and local government counterparts, to promote better awareness and positive attitudinal changes toward values of education to increase community demand for good quality education among parents, caregivers and community members. The campaign also sought to strengthen perceptions of stakeholders’ role in supporting inclusive learning environments for all children at school. The communication channels used by the campaign included sound recordings (e.g., radio, public announcements, etc.), posters, social media, and other forms of communication. In technical terms, the project focuses on the role of what are known as District-based Training and Monitoring Teams (DTMT1) and School Support Committees (SSCs) and their mandate to promote strengthened demand for inclusive quality education among community members and other stakeholders. Members of the School Support Committees (SSCs) led the campaign to improve attitudes and behaviors as these relate to education. These champions facilitated a Human-Centered Design Approach to the development of the campaign and planned events in remote communities targeted by the project. Read More...

Implementation of Social Accountability Framework (ISAF) Endline Report

This is the End of Project Evaluation for CARE’s Implementation of Social Accountability Framework (ISAF) Project. ISAF was implemented in four target provinces (Ratank Kiri, Mondul Kiri, Koh Kong and Kampot) over 36 months (2016-2018). ISAF aimed to reduce poverty through democratic, inclusive and equitable local governance and more accessible and equitable public service delivery. ISAF worked with local NGOs (LNGOs) that were provided grants through the project and citizens of the four targeted provinces who received improved services(commune, health centres and primary schools). [44 pages] Read More...

Implementation of Social Accountability Framework (ISAF) Midterm Review

To improve the voice and accountability in sub-national democratic development, public service delivery and functions of the Cambodian sub-National Government, the Strategic Framework for Social Accountability (SAF) and a three year plan for the Implementation of the Strategic Framework (I-SAF) in 2015-2017, were designed through a highly consultative process between development partners, civil society and the Secretariat of the National Committee for sub-National Democratic Development (NCDDS). The I-SAF plan was endorsed in a joint meeting of the government and civil society in June 2013 and the SAF was approved by the Royal Government of Cambodia on the 11th of July 2013.The SAF and the I-SAF have been fully incorporated into the Second Implementation Plan (IP3-II) of the National Program for sub-National Democratic Development (NP-SNDD).

Read More...

What Is the Effect of the Reform ‘Implementation of the Social Accountability Framework’ in the Cambodian Highlander Villages?

In the absence of relevant knowledge, how are citizens going to enjoy their right to public service delivery? It is argued that decentralization of power, such as making local official politics more open and transparent together with an effort to streamline political decisions with citizens’ preferences, is an efficient way to fight poverty (Raffinot, 2015:199). This works only if it is associated with the reinforcement of citizen’s control over the power1. (Raffinot, 2015:199). To alleviate poverty through the reinforcement of citizen’s control must start with their enhancement of relevant knowledge.
The purpose of this study is to measure the effect of an information campaign on Cambodian citizens’ rights and standards in commune councils, primary schools, and health centers. The study is a quasi-experiment that is designed in accordance with the implementation of the reform I-SAF. The information campaign consists of public posters and meetings held that shall disperse the Cambodian citizens’ rights and standards in commune councils, primary schools, and health centers. [38 pages] Read More...

Implementation of Social Accountability Framework (ISAF): Interim Report

The Implementation of Social Accountability Framework (ISAF) project is managed by CARE and its local NGO partners and involves priority actions including Information for Citizen (I4C) activities, budget awareness raising, and facilitation of the community scorecard approach and self-assessments. Significant progress was made towards achieving the I-SAF project goal during this reporting period from 01 November 2017 to 30 April 2018. The Implementation Plan of the Social Accountability Framework specifies the following implementation arrangements, which determines the roles and participation of the various actors and stakeholders. 272 Local None Governmental Organization (LNGO) partners were successfully recruited which 20 NGOs are implementing partners, four horizontal partners and three specialized training partners.
On all levels of government, national and sub-national levels, most authorities have shown an enthusiasm for the I-SAF project, particularly services providers at the district level. During the reporting period, Community Accountability Facilitators (CAFs) were completed refresher training in Module1-3 and ISAF cycle was readjusted to fit with CARE’s financial year. The inception meetings and I4C awareness meetings were conducted in all of CARE’s allocated districts, which were attended by government officials from the commune council, primary school, and health centre. Whereas, community scorecard and service provider self-assessment meetings are on-going. [24 pages] Read More...

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