Food Security

Kore Lavi Title II Program Haiti – Midterm Evaluation

This reports presents the findings, conclusions and recommendations related to the Kore Lavi mid-term evaluation.

DESCRIPTION OF KORE LAVI. Kore Lavi’s Theory of Change holds that positive and lasting transformation must happen within interrelated domains: (1) where the effective social safety net programming and complementary services reach the most vulnerable populations and protect their access to food while building self-reliance; (2) that achieve breadth and depth in behavior and social change needed to tackle under-nutrition among vulnerable women and children; and (3) that institutionalize accountability, transparency and quality of delivery for mutually reinforcing social protection programs under the leadership of MAST.

EVALUATION METHODOLOGY. The evaluation employed three data collection methodologies: document review, key informant interviews, and focus group discussions.

PRIMARY FINDINGS AND CONCLUSIONS.
At the time of the MTE, Kore Lavi had completed data collection in 16 communes demonstrating the ability to adapt and innovate to address the initial data quality problems that existed at the beginning of the program.

In terms of its implementation on the ground, the food voucher scheme is operating well in identifying voucher recipients and enrolling them in the program, distributing food to beneficiaries via paper or electronic vouchers, recruiting and managing the network of collaborating vendors, enforcing policies governing the scheme and overseeing operations. Food received by beneficiary households from both paper and electronic vouchers is inevitably shared with non-household members, including neighbors and even strangers. The VSLA scheme has effectively provided a mechanism by which large numbers of vulnerable women and men living in program communities can save and access small loans at reasonable interest rates to invest in their businesses or children’s education or for other purposes.

SO3 social behavioral change communications interventions are, on the whole, well designed and well implemented. Care Groups, moreover, appear to be an effective methodology for mobilizing women and communicating critical SBCC messages. Community health agents and Lead Mothers play a critical role in SO3 activities. While they are, for the most part, doing a good job and are satisfied with their roles, they also have a number of legitimate concerns related to the lack of monetary compensation and reimbursement for expenses incurred. The program has done a good job identifying and reaching the targeted women and infants.

Kore Lavi has taken a holistic approach to gender integration from design to implementation and has made a conscious and good faith effort to integrate gender considerations in each of the four program SOs.

Kore Lavi has prioritized information management and has demonstrated a clear institutional interest in improving knowledge and learning.

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Baseline Study of the Title II Development Food Assistance Program in Haiti

In fiscal year 2013, the U.S. Agency for International Development’s (USAID) Office of Food for Peace (FFP) awarded funding to CARE International and its partners, Action Contre La Faim International (ACF) and the U.N. World Food Programme (WFP), to implement a Title II development food assistance program in Haiti.1 The four-year Kore Lavi Program directly supports the Government of Haiti’s (GOH) social protection efforts. The overall objective of the program is to reduce food insecurity and vulnerability by supporting the GOH in establishing a replicable safety net system and expanding capacities for preventing child undernutrition.

KEY FINDINGS.
The Title II program area residents face challenges in all four pillars of food security: (1) availability of food, (2) access to food, (3) utilization of food and (4) stability.

Survey results indicate that 57.5 percent of households suffer from moderate hunger and 13.5 percent of households suffer from severe hunger.

An HDDS of 6.2 indicates that households in the Kore Lavi Program area typically can access and consume 6 of 12 basic food groups. Qualitative data indicate that food consumption is pragmatic at the household level. Individual families eat what is available, what they can grow or what they can afford to purchase. Despite these challenges, many respondents spoke ardently to beliefs about the cultural significance of certain foods, while also holding strong opinions on imported food in comparison to locally produced food.

The household survey data show that 69 percent of all households have an adequate level of food consumption, 22 percent score at the borderline level, and 9 percent score at the poor level.

Across the Kore Lavi Program area, 43.6 percent of households currently live in extreme poverty (less than the international poverty line of USD$1.25 at 2005 prices), with average daily per capita expenditures of constant USD$ 2.10.

The household survey data show that 40 percent of households use an improved drinking water source and 16 percent of households use a non-shared improved sanitation facility.

As measured by body mass index (BMI), the nutritional status of women 15-49 years of age who are not pregnant or two months post-partum is generally satisfactory despite a lack of dietary diversity.

The survey data reveal that 8 percent of children under five years of age in the Kore Lavi Program area show signs of being moderately or severely underweight, and 19 percent of children under five years of age are stunted.

Across the qualitative data, views about gender equality tended to be polarized, rooted historically and in tradition. Read More...

Village Savings and Loan Associations as Economic Drivers

Exploring impacts of Village Savings and Loan Association (VSLA) at micro level to understand their potential to contribute to the Tanzanian economy

Savings-led microfinance innovation aims to improve access to financial services in remote areas, especially among women. CARE International has been the leading innovator in the field and has initiated Village Savings and Loan Association (VSLA) programmes across Tanzania. CARE aims to increase members in Tanzania to 8 million by 2025 with the vison to help improve the national economy. CARE thus commissioned SFTZ to carry out a study that investigates the potential of VSLA contributions to local and national economies.

METHODS. The study was implemented in six villages in Mufindi district, Iringa region; four of which were assigned as treatment and two as control. Treatment villages had 9 to 15 NGO-facilitated VSLAs, and control villages had only two comparable VSLAs.

RESULTS. Analysis of the data at the village level did not provide evidence that VSLA initiatives have contributed to large-scale economic growth except for one risk mitigation sub-indicator. A number of issues hindered the village-level comparison: First, microfinance savings groups were also present in control villages. Secondly, the penetration of savings groups within all treatment villages was low (below 30%, except for one village).

However, at the household level, VSLA membership showed significant impacts on a number of micro-level measures of economic growth. VSLA households had higher household savings, drew on VSLA savings to overcome negative impacts of household shocks, attained greater food security and more diverse diets, achieved better agricultural and business outcomes, and enjoyed greater economic status. Although these differences cannot be directly attributed to the VSLA programme without before-and-after comparisons with a meaningful control group, the positive household impacts suggest that a VSLA programme scaled to a high density within each village could have a positive impact
on the local economy. Read More...

Mid-Term Strategic Review of the Livelihoods for Resilience Activity

CARE commissioned a Mid-Term Strategic Review (MTSR) of the Livelihoods for Resilience Activity to formulate recommendations for the remaining life of the project to increase effectiveness in achieving sustainable impact. The Livelihoods for Resilience Activity is being implemented in 27 Woredas in the three regions of Tigray, Amhara, and Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples and is just over the midway point in its five-year life from December 5, 2016, through December 3, 2021. The purpose of the Livelihoods for Resilience Activity is to reduce food insecurity and increase resilience for 97,900 chronically food insecure households that are enrolled in the fourth cycle of the Government of Ethiopia’s Productive Safety Net Program (PSNP4), enabling them to graduate with resilience from the PSNP4.

The MTSR for the Livelihoods for Resilience Activity was a formative evaluation exercise intended to provide guidance on ways to improve the effectiveness of the program in achieving intended impact.

Relative to the four global learning questions for the MTSR (see page 4), the MTSR found that the model that the Livelihoods for Resilience Activity is implementing is effective for achieving graduation with resilience, but because frontline delivery is constrained by the number of staff, their technical capacities and the degree of supervision and support that they receive, interventions are not always going deeply enough to ensure behavioral change. The program is empowering women both economically and socially through the VESA platform, but there are significant variations between regions; and outside of the VESA, there is some evidence to suggest that women’s empowerment has not yet been well incorporated, especially in value chain participation and MFI linkages. Progress is certainly being made in transferring ideas and knowledge to PSNP counterparts, but that has not yet translated into practice mainly because of resource constraints. Key approaches that need to be added or strengthened in the coming two years include expanding frontline delivery capacities, expanding efforts to ensure that strategies and approaches are well understood by implementation staff at all levels in all partners, ensuring that women’s empowerment is included in all approaches by all partners, and looking for new ways to facilitate access to jobs, either through self-employment or wage employment, for youth from PSNP households.

The Livelihoods for Resilience Activity is already doing some very nice work in starting to achieve sustainable impact. The project has strong potential to be recognized as a “great” project if it can make some adjustments.
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PROGRAMME EUROPÉEN DE SÉCURITÉ ALIMENTAIRE ET NUTRITIONNELLE ASARA

L’Union Européenne finance les Programmes ASARA (Amélioration de la Sécurité Alimentaire et Augmentation des Revenus Agricoles) et AINA (Actions Intégrées en Nutrition et Alimentation) dans le cadre de son initiative visant à accélérer l’atteinte de l’Objectif du Millénaire pour le Développement (OMD) 1c, « réduire de moitié, d’ici 2015, la proportion de la population vivant dans l’extrême pauvreté et souffrant de la faim ».

ASARA et AINA pilotés respectivement par l'USCP (Unité de Suivi et de Coordination du Projet) et la FAO (Organisation des Nations Unies pour l’Alimentation et l’Agriculture) visent la réduction de l’insécurité alimentaire des familles vulnérables dans les zones ciblées. Le programme AINA vise en plus l’amélioration de la sécurité nutritionnelle de ces familles. Les Régions Androy, Anosy et Atsimo Atsinanana sont des zones communes aux deux programmes si AINA intervient également dans les Régions Amoron’i Mania, Vatovavy Fitovinany et ASARA dans le District de Fort-Dauphin. Read More...

ENSURE Project Outcome Monitoring Survey Report

Enhancing Nutrition Stepping Up Resilience and Enterprises (ENSURE), originally was a 5 year project which was supposed to end in June 2018 but was extended to February 2020. It is funded by USAID and is implemented in six districts in Manicaland and Masvingo Provinces by a consortium led by World Vision. The other consortium members are CARE, SNV, SAFIRE and ICRISAT. World Vision is the implementing lead in Buhera, Chipinge and Chimanimani Districts of Manicaland Province, while CARE is the implementing lead in Bikita, Chivi and Zaka Districts of Masvingo Province. The project aims to cushion vulnerable and food insecure Zimbabweans in the target districts. The main thrust of the project is to empower and capacitate poor, rural households in the targeted districts to become more food secure. The geographical scope of the ENSURE project was carefully selected to involve agro-ecological zones 4 and 5 where food insecurity is high and covering a total of 66 wards of which 32 wards are in Manicaland Province and 34 are in Masvingo Province. The ENSURE project is anchored on three main thematic areas namely maternal and child health (SO1), agriculture and economic development (SO2), and resilience (SO3). Gender is included as a cross cutting objective which has been embraced in this project in order to increase equity in access to resources among men and women. [44 pages] Read More...

Velontenga Final Evaluation

Le projet VELONTEGNA mis en œuvre par le SAF/FJKM en partenariat avec CARE International dans la Région Atsinanana, et qui dure 3 ans, est financé par la Coopération allemande BMZ (Bundesministerium für wirtschaftliche Zusammenarbeit). L’objectif est que les 17 000 ménages vulnérables cibles puissent améliorer de façon durable leur sécurité alimentaire afin de faire face aux impacts du changement climatique et parmi lesquels, il y aura au moins 4 000 ménages ruraux dirigés par les femmes. (88 pages)

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MAHAFATOKY project final evaluation

CARE Madagascar a mis en œuvre un projet qui s’intitule MAHAFATOKY dont l’objectif est d’accroître la résilience de 50.000 ménages dans les deux districts côtiers de la Région SAVA. Généralement, les actions tournent autour des renforcements de capacités pour que la population cible, notamment les plus vulnérables, s’adapte à réduire les effets néfastes du changement climatique sur leur sécurité alimentaire. L’objectif du projet Mahafatoky est de renforcer la résilience des 50000 ménages dans les deux districts côtiers de la Région SAVA à Madagascar, par une plus grande capacité à s’adapter aux effets du changement sur leur sécurité alimentaire et à réduire ces effets. Le projet comprend trois volets essentiels et complémentaires: i) La Gestion des risques et des catastrophes, ii) La sécurité alimentaire et iii) Le groupe d’épargne villageois. Ces trois volets se répartissent en sept (7) résultats attendus (RA) dont les analyses des valeurs actuelles de chaque indicateur sont développées dans ce rapport. Au terme du projet, les bénéficiaires finaux du projet sont de 73 032 ménages soit 365.160 Personnes qui représentent 146% de l’objectif fixé. (118 pages) Read More...

SECOND TREND SURVEY REPORT 2ND DRAFT MAZIKO PROJECT (NUTRITION FOUNDATIONS FOR MOTHERS AND CHILDREN)

This report presents results of the 2014 second trend survey carried out by CARE Malawi, in March, 2014. The report is the source of information of outcome indicators for children, lactating and pregnant mothers’ wellbeing which include health, nutrition, water and sanitation gender and social empowerment. In addition to presenting values for the specific indicators CARE Malawi values the report because it provides valuable information on the status of its activities on women and children in term of access to basic needs such as food, nutrition and health. The report also reveals the progress made over the two years towards the contribution of MAZIKO to the wellbeing of children and caregivers in Kasungu and Dowa. [127 pages] Read More...

Final abiemnom smart survey report 2017

This 50 page report details a SMART Nutrition Survey undertaken in Abiemnom County, South Sudan in ... Read More...

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