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Agriculture|Natural Resources|Environment

Food security, nutrition, climate change resilience and gender: Policies for Small-Scale Farmers

This Policy Analysis is part of series of country-specific studies on Food and Nutrition Security (FNS) and Climate Change Resilience (CCR) policies in the Southern African region that CARE International is currently conducting. CARE identifies advocacy as one of the priority approaches to influence broader change and scale up effective solutions. Multiplying the impact of innovative solutions that bring lasting changes, by documenting and replicating successful experiences, promoting pro-poor approaches and advocating and influencing policies are key aspects of CARE global 2020 Program Strategy. The focus of this analysis is the implementation status of FNS- CCR, with a strong emphasis on how these policies impact in the small scale and women farmers. The analysis covers both national specific policies and those policies and commitments that the Government of Tanzania has signed to as part of global collective efforts. The analysis aims to become a baseline to better understand the policy gaps and implementation challenges in in FNS and CCR towards women and smallholders in Tanzania. [112 pages] Read More...

CARE – FANRAPAN Post-Project Evaluation of Climate Resilient Agriculture Practices

CARE and FANRPAN share common approaches to sustainable economic and social development. We jointly recognize the challenges to inclusive agricultural development in Africa. We also recognize the importance of agriculture research, policy advocacy and capacity strengthening, all of which are needed to improve agricultural production and productivity. This study is an integral part of these shared objectives and is a collaborative effort of the CARE and FANRPAN teams in Mozambique.

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Pro-Resilience Action Program Baseline Study

Christian Aid and United Purpose are leading separate consortia implementing the ProResilience Action (Pro ACT) programme with funding from the European Commission. The programme aims to address existing food and nutrition security challenges among the poorest households under social cash transfer in seven districts by increasing their resilience to climaterelated stresses and shocks. The project will support interventions that foster great resilience to climatic shocks and diversification of livelihoods for vulnerable households and create synergies with the existing support to Social Cash Transfer Programme (SCTP). With this background, Christian Aid Malawi and United Purpose jointly commissioned the baseline study for the programme. The assessment was required to establish and verify baseline indicators related to the current food and nutritional status of the project beneficiaries and their ability to respond to climatic shocks. The baseline was conducted in the 7 districts of Nsanje, Zomba and Mulanje under the United Purpose led consortium and in Chikwawa, Mwanza, Neno, Mzimba North and Mzimba South under the Christian Aid led consortium The overall objective of the assignment was to carry out a baseline study for the “Pro-ACT programme” in order to determine the pre-project situation against major project indicators. This would provide a benchmark on which to formulate project targets and a basis for assessing project milestones during and impact after implementation. [83 pages] Read More...

Mémoire de Fin d’études pour l’Obtention du Diplôme de Master Professionnel en Pastoralisme

La présente étude menée en zone pastorale dans les communes de Bermo et Gadabédji vise à analyser la dynamique organisationnelle des femmes en zone pastorale et de caractériser le rôle que peuvent jouer les groupements féminins dans la prise de décision et l’entrepreneuriat pour ces femmes. Une enquête a été réalisée auprès de 146 femmes membres de groupements féminins à travers des questionnaires individuels mais aussi auprès des femmes non membres (53) et des hommes pour avoir leurs perceptions. Il ressort que 97,3% des femmes membres de groupements féminins interrogés ont affirmé que la pratique d’activités génératrices de revenus (AGR) a amélioré leur relation au sein du ménage et 43,2% ont détecté le renforcement de leur participation aux prises de décisions dans le ménage. 61% des femmes membres de groupements féminins ont affirmé avoir adhéré au groupement pour financer une AGR et 51,4% ont dit que leur adhésion a été motivée par imitation. Il résulte ainsi que les motivations sociales et économiques constituent le pivot de la participation des femmes aux groupements féminins. Les caisses des groupements constituent également un rempart en cas d’urgence ou de crise même pour les non membres. Cette importance reconnue aux groupements de femmes fait qu’ils sont socialement acceptés par toutes les couches. Read More...

Qualitative Assessment of the Effectiveness of Gender Transformative Programming on Changing Gender and Social Norms and Women’s Empowerment

The “Win-Win for Gender, Agriculture and Nutrition: Testing a Gender-Transformative Approach from Asia in Africa” is a project aimed at establishing a comparison between a gender-transformative model to achieve gender equality (the “EKATA” model), and a gender-mainstreamed approach in the agriculture sector (“Gender-Light model”), in which basic activities around gender are integrated into a program whose principle focus and measures of success are women’s economic empowerment through agriculture and micro-enterprise development.

The qualitative research is using in-depth interviews and Focus Group Discussions(FGDs) of a subset of women and their spouses who are participating in the program. For the in-depth interviews, 30 people (22 women and their spouses) were selected and are followed every year to document different pathways to empowerment. They were randomly selected from a strata of all women interviewed at baseline to reflect different social economic and marital status. On the other hand, 106 people (45 men and 61 women) participated in a total of ten FGDs. [42 pages]
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Women and Agriculture Project Gender Analysis Report

In Tanzania, agriculture is the largest and most important sector of the economy. Majority of the country’s population which lives in rural areas relies heavily on agriculture. The sector accounts for about half of the national income, three quarters of merchandise exports and is source of food and provides employment opportunities to about 80 percent of Tanzanians. Agriculture also has linkages with the non-farm sectors through forward linkages to agro-processing; consumption and export; provides raw materials to industries; and a market for manufactured goods. Consequently, agriculture has a pivotal role in economic growth, and is directly linked with sustainable development and poverty reduction. Gender differences are a significant attribute in agriculture, from access, control and ownership of land to marketing of raw and processed produce. In Tanzania, despite constitutional proclamations of gender equality and many laws that promote equal opportunities for both men and women, it remains the case that on both smallholder farms and large plantations, men and women carry out different types of work, have different levels of access to resources, and are unequally rewarded for their contributions to the agricultural system, with women typically having less access and lower incomes (Rubin, 2010). [75 pages] Read More...

Projet d’Appui à l’Accès aux Services Sociaux de Base des Communautés Villageoises Productrice de Cacao des Départements de Daloa et San-Pédro ou « Projet Cargill »

Le « projet d’appui à l’accès aux services sociaux de base des communautés villageoises productrice de cacao des départements de Daloa et San-Pédro» ou « Projet Cargill » est exécuté sur une période de 2 ans par CARE. Il a pour objectif d’améliorer les conditions de vie des planteurs de 10 localités se trouvant dans les zones d’intervention des 2 premières coopératives agricoles certifiées UTZ que sont : COOPAGA (à San-pédro) et CAFD (à Daloa). A l’issu de l’évaluation finale externe reposant sur une approche mixte (qualitative et quantitative) la pertinence, la cohérence, l’efficacité, l’efficience et la durabilité du projet ont été appréciées. [69 pages]
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Business-Based Solutions in Humanitarian Crises: Lessons from Zimbabwe

In response to heightened food insecurity in Zimbabwe, Crown Agents and CARE, through the Grain Trade Market Facility, utilised existing market structures to avoid a potentially devastating food disaster. Using innovative solutions that brought together both the public and private sectors the programme ensured that people could meet their basic food needs through mobile money transfers. Utilising private sector systems increased access to funds and guaranteed market demand. This improved the availability of grain nationwide, maintained price stability and ensured vulnerable households were able to meet their basic food needs. Read More...

Increasing Mitigation, Productivity and Adaptation through Crop-Recovery Techniques (IMPACT) II Project: Endline Summary Report

In the 2015 / 2016 season, Malawi experienced severe floods and droughts that occurred as a result of El Nino weather conditions. The Malawi Vulnerability Assessment Committee (MVAC) -composed of the Government, UN agencies and NGOs- forecasted that a minimum of 6.5 million people, or 39 percent of the country's projected population of 16.8 million, would not be able to meet their annual food requirements during the 2016/2017 consumption period. Nsanje, Phalombe and Mulanje are some of the districts that were hit hardest. CARE Malawi implemented the IMPACT project from August 2016 through July 2017 to help the people from the three districts recover their agricultural-based livelihoods. After closure, USAID’s OFDA provided a new grant of US$1,125,519 for IMPACT to run from August 2017 to July 2018 in a bid to consolidate the gains achieved in the first phase and reach additional households affected by continued dry spells and the Fall Armyworms. CARE subcontracted ADRA (Adventist Development and Relief Agency), an international NGO with experience and presence on the ground, to implement activities of the second phase in Phalombe and Mulanje (as they had in Phase I). This evaluation aimed to assess the design, performance and impact of the second phase. It used mixed methods to collect quantitative and qualitative data from 476 beneficiary households, 14 key persons and 8 fo¬cus group discussions with lead farmers, women and men, local committees and non-beneficiaries. Training of research assistants and pre-testing of study tools were done to ensure quality of the data collected. [48 pages] Read More...

Improving Agricultural Production and Improved Access to Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Drought Affected Populations in Masvingo Province (MERP)’ Project

In September 2018, Care International in Zimbabwe (CIZ) commissioned Keeptrack Consultants to conduct an End of Term Evaluation (EOTE) of the USAID-OFDA funded ‘Improving Agricultural Production and Access to Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Project (MERP) in Bikita, Chivi and Zaka districts of Masvingo Province, Zimbabwe. Initially implemented from 2016-2017 in response to the El Nino induced drought, the project was granted a cost modification for the period 2017-2018 in order to respond to La Nina induced flooding. The extension came with an expansion of coverage from 15 wards initially to 18 wards in the same target districts in the final year. The goal of the project was, ‘To provide immediate assistance and recovery to drought affected populations in Masvingo Province through asset (livestock protection), access to water sanitation and hygiene as well as agricultural production. Project activities were aligned to three sectors namely Agriculture and Food Security Sector, Economic Recovery and Market Systems Sector and the Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Sector.
According to the Terms of Reference (TOR), the purpose of the end of term evaluation was to assess and provide reliable end-line information on project performance against set parameters. The evaluation was also expected to include an analysis of appropriateness, timeliness, efficiency, effectiveness, impact and sustainability. [57 pages]
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