Conflict Mitigation

Beyond Economic Empowerment The Influence of Savings Groups on Women’s Public Participation in Fragile and (post) Conflict-Affected Settings Every Voice Counts

Women’s meaningful participation and influence in public processes in fragile and (post) conflict-affected settings (FCAS) is not only necessary to achieve inclusive development but is a fundamental human right. Unfortunately, in most contexts, men are overrepresented in decision-making and women do not have equal voice in the decisions that affect their lives. Some evidence suggests that the economic empowerment of women opens up opportunities for them to participate in public decision-making processes. One such means for economic empowerment in FCAS is savings groups. Savings groups are small, community-based groups that can provide members a safe space to save money, take small loans, and make investment decisions. Globally, women have made advances in improving their income and access to savings, as well as increased their entrepreneurial endeavours as a result of their participation in savings groups. Research also shows that women’s participation in savings groups improves their confidence, skills, and ability to influence household decision-making. This prompts the question: do these benefits of women’s participation in savings groups extend into the public sphere? In other words, does women’s participation in savings groups influence their public participation1 and decision-making? Through a mixed methods investigation across five countries (18 villages) in Africa and South Asia (Burundi, Mali, Niger, Pakistan, and Sudan), using CARE’s Gender Empowerment Framework, this research investigated the differences in outcomes between women who participate in savings groups under three CARE programmes: Every Voice Counts (EVC), Women on the Move (WoM), and Latter Day Saints Charities (LDS) Recovery Support for Vulnerable Households programmes [74 pages]. Read More...

SEMI-DURABLE SHELTER CONSTRUCTION AND THE TRIPLE NEXUS A study of the multisector ECHO-funded PAMUNOR project in southern Chad

LA CONSTRUCTION D’ABRIS SEMI-DURABLES ET LE TRIPLE NEXUS Une étude portant sur le projet d’assistance multi-sectorielle d’urgence financé par ECHO pour les réfugiés centrafricains et les communautés hôtes (PAMUNOR) au sud du Tchad

En novembre 2019, deux membres de l’équipe mondiale chargée des abris d’urgence de CARE International Royaume Uni a effectué une visite de deux semaines dans le sud du Tchad afin d’évaluer la composante Abris dans le cadre du projet PAMUNOR (Projet d’Assistance Multisectorielle d’Urgence pour les Nouveaux Réfugiés Centrafricains et des Communautés Hôtes) qui est financé par ECHO et géré par CARE Tchad. Ce projet cherche à promouvoir un environnement sûr et sécurisé, notamment en fournissant des abris semi-durables, et à favoriser les moyens de subsistance pour améliorer la sécurité alimentaire et atténuer les stratégies d’adaptation négatives adoptées par les réfugiés centrafricains (RCA) nouvellement arrivés, ainsi que par les membres vulnérables au sein de la communauté hôte. L’un des objectifs spécifiques visant à promouvoir un « environnement sécurisé » consistait à réduire les risques de violence basée sur le genre (VBG) et à assurer une médiation intra et intercommunautaire afin de garantir la coexistence pacifique – condition préalable indispensable à la protection et à la mise en œuvre de l’autosuffisance. L’évaluation s’est intéressée aux détails techniques et opérationnels de la composante Abris et a cherché à comprendre comment cette dernière s’intégrait à une approche programmatique plus large dans le contexte local. Elle a également examiné ses liens avec les différents mécanismes communautaires bénéficiant du soutien du projet. Le succès de la mise en œuvre s’explique par cette approche intégrée qui répond à la fois aux besoins urgents et fondamentaux en termes d’abris et de réduction des risques liés à la VBG, jette les bases pour la sûreté et la sécurité, et génère un environnement propice au développement des moyens de subsistance et favorable à la naissance d’aspirations et d’ambitions en termes d’éducation, de formation et d’apprentissage. Il est important de mentionner l’éventail de mécanismes qui a été mis en place par la communauté pour atténuer les conflits communautaires et la violence basée sur le genre, fruit d’un processus inclusif qui favorise la viabilité et l’appropriation. Les processus de renforcement de la coexistence pacifique, de la cohésion sociale et visant à favoriser l’intégration locale font partie intégrante de l’approche suivie par le projet, l’objectif recherché étant l’autosuffisance, et ils incarnent incontestablement le « troisième côté du triangle » au cœur du nexus Humanitaire-Développement-Paix. De ce point de vue, le projet permettrait de tirer de précieux enseignements programmatiques qui pourraient s’avérer pertinents dans d’autres contextes, au Tchad ou dans d’autres pays, connaissant des déplacements prolongés, un conflit communautaire de faible intensité, des besoins humanitaires et des opportunités de renforcement de la résilience, de l’autosuffisance et de la viabilité.

Two members of CARE International UK’s global Emergency Shelter Team conducted a two-week visit to southern Chad in November 2019 to evaluate the shelter component of CARE Chad’s ECHO-funded PAMUNOR project (Projet d’Assistance Multisectorielle d’Urgence pour les Nouveaux Réfugiés Centrafricains et des Communautés Hôtes / Project to provide multisectoral emergency assistance to newly displaced Central African Republic refugees and host communities). This project seeks to support safe and secure living environments, including through the provision of semi-durable shelters, and to stimulate livelihoods, improving food security and reducing negative coping mechanisms amongst newly arrived refugees from Central African Republic (CAR) as well as vulnerable members of the host community. A specific focus on supporting a “secure environment” was through reducing the risks of genderbased violence (GBV) and mediating within and between communities to ensure peaceful coexistence as a necessary pre-requisite for protection and the establishment of self-sufficiency. The evaluation was achieved by looking closely at the shelter component in technical and operational detail as well as by probing its connection to a broader programmatic approach within the local context and its links to various community mechanisms supported through the project. Effective implementation has been achieved through this integrated approach that simultaneously addresses urgent and fundamental needs for shelter and GBV-risk reduction while laying the foundations for safety and security and creating an enabling environment for the development of livelihoods and the growth of aspirations and ambitions for education, training and learning. Of particular note is the range of mechanisms to reduce community conflict and gender-based violence established through a highly effective community-led and inclusive process that brings sustainability and ownership. Processes of strengthening peaceful co-existence, social cohesion and stimulating local integration run through the project’s approach, seeking to catalyse self-sufficiency, and arguably represents the “third side of the triangle” within the humanitarian-development-peace nexus. In this regard, the project could provide valuable programmatic lessons to other contexts in Chad or elsewhere where protracted displacement, low-level community conflict, humanitarian needs and some opportunities for strengthening resilience, self-sufficiency and sustainability are present. [94 pages] Read More...

Projet régional de Dialogue pour la Transhumance apaisée en Afrique de l’Ouest (PRODIATA)

Le Projet régional de Dialogue pour la Transhumance apaisée en Afrique de l’Ouest (PRODIATA) est mis en oeuvre pour opérationnaliser la composante 2 du Programme Régional de Dialogue et d'Investissement pour le Pastoralisme et la transhumance au Sahel et dans les pays côtiers d’Afrique de l’Ouest (PREDIP). Le PREDIP est conçu dans une approche régionale avec un objectif général de renforcer la contribution du pastoralisme et de la transhumance transfrontalière à la sécurité alimentaire et nutritionnelle, au développement socioéconomique équitable et à l’intégration régionale en Afrique de l’Ouest.
PRODIATA a pour objectif général de contribuer à long terme à faciliter une transhumance transfrontalière apaisée et à améliorer la nutrition des populations côtières et pastorales. L’objectif spécifique du projet est d’impliquer les acteurs locaux, nationaux et régionaux de la transhumance transfrontalière dans le dialogue et la bonne gouvernance des ressources et des espaces agro-sylvo-pastoraux en réduisant les risques de conflits et en améliorant la sécurité alimentaire. De façon spécifique, le projet viser à impliquer les acteurs locaux, nationaux et régionaux de la transhumance transfrontalière dans le dialogue et la bonne gouvernance des
ressources et des espaces agro-sylvo-pastoraux pour une réduction des risques de conflits et l’amélioration de la sécurité alimentaire. Read More...

CARE Rapid Gender and GBV Assessment Borno State: Banki, Pulka and Rann

Rapid Gender and GBV assessments provide information about the different GBV risks, needs, capacities and coping strategies of women, men, boys and girls during crisis. The analysis is built up progressively using a range of primary and secondary information to understand gender roles and power relations and implied GBV risks and how they may change during a crisis. The analysis provides practical, programming and operational recommendations to meet the different needs of women, men, boys and girls, to ensure that humanitarian actors ‘do no harm’ in their operations. The global objective of this assessment is to improve the quality and effectiveness of CARE and partner’s response to the North East Nigeria crisis. Read More...

Baseline Survey Report for a WASH project in West Mosul

This is a baseline survey report for the "Improving Sanitation, Hygiene, Renovation of Sewage System" project, funded by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Czech Republic.
There are two priority issues to be addressed by this project: a) significant health risks posed by accumulation of solid waste in key arteries of West Mosul (Cree stream), precluding the effective flow of gray water towards the river as well as damaged pipes which serve to remove black water from residential areas (Al-Thawra neighborhood), and b) limited civic engagement and ownership of residential environment, resulting in poor communal hygiene practices and a high burden on local authorities, which are operating under severely reduced capacity to address needs.
A base-line survey was conducted to identify the current water, hygiene and sanitation conditions in the neighborhood, beneficiaries’ specific needs (disaggregated by men, women, boys and girls) and overall awareness towards water, hygiene and sanitation measures. In order to measure the impact of this projects base line data will be evaluated against end line data collected after project closure. Read More...

Endline evaluation of WASH project in West Mosul, Iraq

This is an endline evaluation for the "Improving Sanitation, Hygiene, Renovation of Sewage Systems" project, funded by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Czech Republic.
This project addressed critical needs for sanitation services in West Mosul, as a direct contribution to enable the affected populations to return home. The project aimed to repair two vital sanitation resources/infrastructure in West Mosul and to support the municipal authorities to build their capacity to eventually recover their costs, once the situation allows. Finally, the project intended to mobilize local communities towards greater ownership for their local environment, to avoid the recurrence of such sanitation risks and maintain a cleaner, more habitable environment. In addition to mitigate a number of health risks related to poor sanitation in urban areas, CARE’s engagement aimed to promote social cohesion and community participation among vulnerable populations affected by the conflict.
The End-line project Evaluation is intended to assess the relevance, performance, management arrangements and success of the project. It looks at signs of potential impact of project activities on men,
women, girls and boys identified as vulnerable and the sustainability of results, including the contribution to capacity development. The Evaluation also identifies, and documents lessons learnt and makes recommendations that project staff and the stakeholders might use to improve the design and implementation of other related projects and programs. Read More...

WASH Support to IDPs & host communities in Duhlok and Ninawa, Iraq (2017-2019)

CARE’s GAC funded WASH project started in January 2017 providing critical water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) services to improve overall WASH services for women, men, boys and girls and reduce tensions between the host community and IDPs in the areas of 4 IDP camps (Mamrashan, Essyan, Sheikhan, and Chamishko), and host community collectives (Ardawan, Ba’adre, Kalakchi, Mahate and Ayas) of Duhok Governorate. The project also had an emergency response component in November 2017 in three neighbourhoods of West Mosul (Al-Mansour, Al-Jawsaq and Wadi Al-Hajar). The project is implemented through two local partners Harikar and REACH. Working through partners is a key modality of CARE’s country strategy to strengthen the capacity of local NGOs. This approach has had a significant impact in achieving the GAC aim of supporting vulnerable and conflict-affected people living in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq. The ongoing WASH intervention aims to provide 55,572 (27,318 women & 28,434 men)2 IDPs and members of host communities with access to water supply, safe sanitary facilities and increased awareness on safe hygiene practices in a dignified, gender-sensitive and culturally appropriate manner.
The midterm project evaluation aims to assess the relevance, performance, and progress on targets within the project. It looks at signs of potential impact of project activities on men, women, girls and boys identified as vulnerable and the sustainability of results, including the contribution to capacity development. The evaluation also identifies, and documents lessons learnt and makes recommendations for CARE Iraq and project partners to improve the implementation of the final year of the GAC project as well and strengthen the design of future related projects. Read More...

Final Evaluation of “Promoting Peace in East Darfur”

This report presents the findings of the field work for the final evaluation of the CIS project "Promoting Peace in East Darfur" funded by the United Nations Development Programme/Darfur Community Peace and Stability Fund (UNDP/DCPSF) for a period of two years (2016-2018). Initiated in 2007/08, the DCPSF supports peace and stability in Darfur by strengthening community-based reconciliation mechanisms (CBRMs), providing livelihoods support, promoting effective natural resources management, and building and linking networks among peace building actors and initiatives in Darfur. This founded on processes of dialogue and consultations and addresses root causes of conflict through various activities that provide dividends of peace in Darfur while paving the way for early recovery in the Region.
The evaluation approach and methodology included desk review of the project reports, meetings and focus group discussions.
The report concludes that the project is highly relevant to the contextual realities in the targeted areas in particular and East Darfur State in general and the needs and priorities of the communities. The impact of the project can be clearly seen in conflict reduction, success of communities in conflict management and resolution and empowering women and youth. The senior State Government officials, who were met by the consultant, informed that they have attended a number of joint events organized by the Rizeigat and Maalia communities. Tribal leaders, youth and women participated in these joint events, exchange visits. The youth from the two communities organized football matches in an effort to make sports a vehicle for peace. These efforts have resulted in the establishment of the State level conflict resolution network. The report recommends more support to some CBRMs to increase their efficiency and improve their performance. It is also recommended that CARE International Sudan respond to the requests made by its partners for extending the project duration or replicating it in other areas. Read More...

Addressing Root Causes Project in South Sudan

The Addressing Root Causes (ARC) project that started in September 2016, aims at tackling the root causes of armed conflict, instability and irregular migration in South Sudan by increasing community resilience to conflict-related and economically-induced shocks in 19 payams in Jonglei state in the counties of Pibor, Twic East, Duk and Bor. The project has distinguished three outcomes areas: Economic Resilience, Peaceful Conflict Resolution and Social Cohesion which are expected to be mutually reinforcing and when all are combined and stregthened together, the beneficial effects will contribute to more resilience and a culture of peace.
This mid-term review was conducted to assess the progress of project implementation since September 2016, and document best practices and lessons learned to inform key stakeholders on future activity design, programming, and implementation. Primary data was collected using household survey, key Informant Interviews and Focus Group Discussions with the targeted communities. Combined with the FGD, a Social Norm Analysis Plot (SNAP) framework was applied as it was considered best suited to measure changes in social (gender) norms.
Key findings from review indicate access to loans and training of VSLA groups is empowering women and youth in the targeted communities to engage in IGAs and micro-enterprises, thereby broadening their livelihood and resilience options and creating market linkages with traders across different ethnic communities. Further, more women and youth reported being confident to participate in economic opportunities and possess relevant tools and skills; and the role of women and youth is being appreciated in contributing to meeting household needs, thereby reflecting the conflict and gender transformation in the targeted communities. It should however be noted that more VSLAs have been formed and are engaged in IGAs and micro-enterprises in Duk and Twic East compared to Bor and Pibor.
Also, peace committees are appreciated and recognized by the targeted communities for facilitating and using peaceful mechanisms to mitigate and resolve intra and – inter community conflict and reconcile past grievances. Most project beneficiaries also reported increased collaboration with each other, and feel have more positive relationships and trust within and beyond their community. Read More...

Women’s Empowerment Program (WEP) Midterm Report

In 2009, Norad-funded women empowerment programs (WEPs) started implementation in seven countries: Burundi, Mali, Myanmar, Niger, Rwanda, Tanzania, and Uganda. In 2009 and early 2010, an extensive quantitative baseline study was conducted in these countries around a common set of indicators. The present mid-term review (MTR), which was done using qualitative methodology, analysed in depth the process and nature of changes that the programs are contributing towards. In all the program countries, the country WEP team carried out the review internally with the technical assistance of an external consultant and CARE Norway (CN).

With slight variations, the overall objectives of the country WEPs focused on the economic, social, and political empowerment of women. The village savings and loan association (VSLA) methodology was common for all the programs; and these groups create the platform for working on other aspects of the program besides economic empowerment. The initial changes that the programs produce are seen in terms of increased access to savings and loans, employment opportunities, and asset ownership. The ability of the women to earn income, generate their own savings and make financial contributions in the household (HH) has greatly improved their self-esteem, thereby giving them better leverage to involve in and influence HH decision making processes. Men were highly appreciative of the income women were able to bring in to the family as a result of being involved in VSLAs. Through their improved position in the household, women reported being able to negotiate the use of sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services and the abandonment of different harmful practices. Through the use of couples-based approach and engaging men initiatives, HH relationships are beginning to improve; men in these households are reportedly starting to have a more positive attitude towards women’s empowerment and are themselves even taking part in domestic activities in some contexts. The VSLA approach is enabling women to create strong social networks that are becoming an influential force for social change. As a result of increased knowledge on their human rights and increasing leadership skills, women are beginning to understand how they have to position themselves to realize their strategic interests. The VSLA groups and networks also enable women to mobilise support when they are running for elections; this support has increased number of women being elected into different posts. The contribution of women in VSLAs and in community leadership positions is being increasingly recognised and appreciated by local authority figures, which can be seen when they actively seek the advice of women and VSL groups in relation to different community development initiatives.
Through working in partnership with others, the programs are being implemented in a high quality and timely manner. Engagement with strategic partners has occurred effectively in some countries, and been instrumental in enabling the programs to link grassroots evidence to national level advocacy activities which have achieved concrete results. [52 pages] Read More...

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