RGA

CARE Rapid Gender Analysis on Power INCREASE: Northern Samar, Philippines

Vulnerable groups – particularly women – suffer most from natural and man-made hazards. Now more than ever, there is a need to account for their needs and interests in public decision-making spaces to ensure that community-based disaster risk reduction (DRR) mechanisms and governance structures are effective, inclusive, and are sustainably adopted. Providing women with the opportunity and ability to actively participate in DRR planning and solutions not only amplifies their voice in decisions that affect their lives, but also harnesses their potential in leading community DRR work.
Aimed at increasing the resilience of small-scale farmers, fisher folk – with focus given to female headed-households and women collectives in its partner communities, Project INCREASE sought to augment its
women engagement activities and advocacy work through (1) piloting the Women Lead in Emergencies (WLiE)
action research model in its activities, and (2) drawing insights from the Rapid Gender Analysis on Power (RGA-POW) conducted in nine crisis-affected barangays in Mapanas, and Palapag, Northern Samar, Philippines covered by the project.
This RGA-POW provides information about the different needs, capacities and aspirations of women – with a focus on the structural and relational barriers to, and opportunities for women’s leadership and public participation during and after emergencies, as well as relevant information on the local context from previous studies (e.g. post-distribution monitoring reports, rapid gender analyses, etc.).
Apart from demonstrating that women do have power and exercise this with other women, the report also outlines underlying reasons for limited public voice and decision-making for different groups of women, and identifies potential resistors and risks, as well as present opportunities and actions that can address observed barriers. Thus, providing promising directions for WLiE in INCREASE. Read More...

Rapid Gender Analysis on Power & Participation (RGA-P) Women Lead in Emergencies Mawlamyine, Mon State, Myanmar

This is the first Rapid Gender Analysis on Power and Participation (RGA-P) report completed in Mawlamyine, Mon State, Myanmar. An RGA-P assesses the impact of crisis on gender, power relations and women’s participation and leadership.
Key findings
• Social norms severely limit women’s rights, voice and access to decision making and leadership roles in the community.
• Formal and informal decision-making spaces are still largely dominated by men.
• There are limited all female community groups active in the targeted communities.
• When women are participating in formal governance positions or community groups, they are relegated to support roles and have no opportunities to influence decision making within those spaces.
• Social and economic insecurity as a result of the military coup and resulting violence, COVID and other issues have increased security concerns across Myanmar and contribute to the barriers faced by women in relation to participation and leadership in their community. Read More...

Rapid Gender Analysis on Power and Participation: Women Lead in Emergencies Northern Shan State, Myanmar

As of December 2022, there are 1.4 million internally displaced people (IDP) in Myanmar.4 Over 40,000 people remain in neighboring countries like Bangladesh, Thailand, and India since the takeover. More than 18,058 civilian properties, including houses, churches, monasteries, and schools are estimated to have been destroyed during hostilities, although figures are difficult to verify. The level of destruction of civilian properties, particularly homes, combined with the seemingly never-ending fighting will very likely prolong the displacement of the IDPs and would further deteriorate their already fragile living conditions. The current volatile security situation and its associated restrictions, such as bureaucratic processes, systematic blocks on access approvals, continue to hamper humanitarian access and delay the delivery of assistance.

The purpose of this Rapid Gender Analysis on Power & Participation (RGA-P) is to build a better understanding as to whether and how women are able to participate in the community and in decision making spaces in the Northern Shan State of Myanmar and what changes may have occurred as a result of the conflict and women’s participation and leadership. The research was conducted through primary and secondary data collection in July 2022 in three villages in the Lashio Township of the Northern Shan State, Myanmar.
Summary of the findings
The main factors that were found to restrict women’s access and opportunity to participate in public decision making and leadership roles were related to
➢ Social norms and expectations of the role women are expected to play/hold in society and the views that female characteristics are not fit for leadership roles.
➢ The expectation that women are responsible for all of the household chores, childcare and care for elderly.
➢ Restrictions on women’s movement (controlled by husbands and elder family members) also impedes women’s rights to engage in spaces outside of the home.
➢ In addition, barriers such a slow literacy rates in Myanmar language (the language used is most formal meetings/decision making spaces) Read More...

Rapid Gender Analysis Policy Brief: Türkiye & Northwest Syria Earthquake Response

Earthquakes are gender neutral - they affect everyone in their vicinity - but their impacts are not. Gender inequality exacerbates the impact of disasters, and the impacts of disasters exacerbate gender inequality. The earthquake in Türkiye and Northwest Syria (NW Syria) – the largest earthquake to affect the region in 200 years - occurred in areas already affected by mass displacement and population movements for over a decade, as well as long-standing protection issues. One thing is clear, however, where the impacts of the earthquake are gendered, the response must be too. This first Rapid Gender Analysis (RGA) Brief explores existing gender, age and disability data and information to understand pre-existing vulnerabilities and capacities and how best humanitarians can respond to meet people’s different needs. Read More...

Sacrificing the Future to Survive the Present: North East Syria RGA

Amid a tense and fragile security situation, both male and female participants in this rapid gender analysis (RGA) identified their main concerns as their loss of income and livelihoods and the increased cost of food. The intensifying food crisis is further aggravated by disruptions to wheat production, climate change, continued insecurity and the war in Ukraine, which has significantly reduced Syria’s grain imports.
The fragility of the food system, combined with the water crisis and the near collapse of the labor market, has aggravated chronic food insecurity and malnutrition in the region, leading to profound short and long-term impacts on health and resilience. One in three children face malnutrition, and those under five need nutritional interventions, as do pregnant and lactating women.
Most households that took part in this RGA said their food needs were not being met despite aid distributions. Female-headed households, widows and people with disabilities are particularly vulnerable. About 38% of households living in camps for internally displaced people (IDPs) are female-headed.
The number of female heads of household and other women in the labor market has increased, but limitations on women’s mobility, economic participation and decision making persist, as do social and cultural expectations about the role of men as main decision makers and community leaders.
All respondents said the conflict was increasingly restricting their freedom of movement. Women’s main fears in terms of their mobility related to harassment and exploitation, and men’s to kidnap or recruitment by armed actors. All respondents identified lack of transportation, high costs and insecurity as the main obstacles to accessing health services. Read More...

CARE Rapid Gender Analysis on Power and Participation (RGA-P) Kassala Sudan

This Rapid Gender Analysis on Power and Participation (RGA-P) was carried out to understand women’s participation in both formal and informal structures, and the barriers to and opportunities for supporting women’s meaningful participation and leadership during the health and WASH protracted crisis in Kassala State. This RGA P was conducted in Kassala, a state in East Sudan, which borders Ethiopia and Eritrea and has a population of 2,8 million with a population of 1,271,780 below the age of 18. Annually, Kassala state is affected by natural crisis, floods, droughts and subsequent desertification, as well as man-made crisis. Refugees from Tigray and Eritrea settled in Kassala, making the state susceptible to higher rates of trafficking, smuggling and violence. Kassala state is one of the states with the country’s worst social indicators on malnutrition. Women and adolescent girls are exposed to high rates of female genital mutilation (FGM), high risk of kidnapping and high rates of child early marriage; with FGM and gender based violence (including FGM and early child marriange) all normalized within society. The prevalence of FGM in Kassala is at 40 % and children as young as six years are being engaged to be married.
As part of the RGAP, a training was conducted with staff and partner staff on Women Lead in Emergencies (WLiE). The training helped staff to appreciate the approach as well as the methodology. Following the training, a team of sixteen staff members (15 female and 1 male) participated in the primary data collection in three villages. Focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted with groups of women and men. Key informant interviews (KIIs) were held with women leaders, community leaders, government officials as well as one of the agencies that has been implementing in the area. Secondary data collection was also done to triangulate and validate findings.
Women in the three villages visited have limited decision making power and voice, both within the home and in public spaces. Some of the barriers to participation cited by women included lack of education, harmful social norms and practices that limit women and girls’ mobility and participation in public, and limited access and control over resources.
In the three villages where this RGA P focused, Wad Eissa, Shalataib, and Wad Bau villages, findings indicated there are no women participating in the key local level governance structure, referred to as the Popular Committee. Men occupy all the leadership positions and where women’s names were included in the membership list, it was often tokenistic without the women’s own awareness of their role. Apart from the popular committee, there is a community level “father’s group” that supports education in Wad Bau, there were no other visible formal or informal decision-making structures.
Only one active women’s group was identified in Wad Elisa, but no other women’s groups or associations were identified in the rest of the three villages. The group in Wad Eisa had been formed as a result of interventions lead by a German NGO, Welthungerhilfe (WHH), in the area. The other villages had had limited interactions with outside organizations both national, international and even the government.
The entry points to enhancing women’s participation and leadership during the health and WASH protracted crisis in Kassala State can be through the engagement of the traditional and trained midwives, the female teachers, and the mothers’ groups. CARE under the health and nutrition project are looking to form mothers and fathers’ group. This will help bring women together and create safe spaces for women to work together. In the three villages, there are trained midwives, and in Wad Bau there are three female teachers. These women already have the respect and support of the women, and these women can conduct awareness sessions and facilitate discussions with groups of women, regarding their concerns and how they can come together and take the lead in addressing issues that affect them. As teachers are often from outside the village and stay only for a few months at a time, this can be an effective starting point for engaging women but a more sustainable approach will need to be considered as well. Through the father’s groups, men and boys can be engaged, to mitigate GBV risks, that could emerge, due to women’s participation in decision making regarding different community issues. According to one of the male leaders, men have been resistant of women participating in decision making platforms, and social norms are not open to women speaking in front of men.
Read More...

Rapid Gender Analysis Sinjar District, Ninewa Governorate, Iraq

CARE International in Iraq (CARE Iraq) with the support of the Crisis Centre of the French Ministry of Europe and Foreign Affairs (CDCS), is providing Livelihood and Protection services in Sinjar District in Ninewa governorate. CARE Iraq is implementing the services through its local partner Dak Organization for Ezidi Women Development (Dak). CARE Iraq undertook a Rapid Gender Analysis (RGA) to understand different gender norms, roles, and power dynamics, in addition to the specific needs of women, girls and vulnerable people in the project locations to ensure safe, equitable and dignified access to the services.
The conflict in Iraq and the protracted humanitarian crisis have had a severe impact on infrastructure and service delivery in general, which, together with the COVID-19 pandemic and the rise of the unemployment rate, has led to an increase in existing Gender Based Violence (GBV) and protection risks. The continuance of political and economic instabilities is having a huge effect on the population as a whole; however, conflicts and emergencies impact women and girls differently, and understanding different roles, dynamics and needs will help improve the quality of and access to those services. Sinjar District is the most affected area by the Islamic State of Iraq and Levant (ISIL); it has suffered a tragic human loss in addition to the loss of infrastructure, livelihoods, and homes. Following the liberation in 2017, IDPs started to move back to Sinjar; however, until this date, the provision and availability of basic services like health, Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene (WASH), and livelihoods, as well as reconstruction of housing and infrastructure, is relatively low. The current situation has a negative impact on the community in terms of safety and security, which is clearly reflected in the lowest IDP return rates (35%) compared to other districts in Iraq in 20211.
There are several concerns around livelihoods and the lack of adequate protection services for the targeted community that need to be addressed to ensure safe and equitable access to all members of the community. Read More...

Rapid Gender Analysis Khanki, Sharya, and Derabon Districts, Duhok Governorate, Iraq September 2022

CARE International in Iraq (CARE Iraq) with the support of The Directorate General for European Civil Protection and Humanitarian Aid Operation (DG ECHO) is providing life-saving support in Protection and WASH to highly vulnerable persons in acute displacement in Duhok Governorate, Iraq. CARE Iraq is directly implementing WASH activities, while Protection activities are implemented through CARE’s local partner, The Lotus Flower (TLF). CARE Iraq aims to understand different gender norms, roles, and dynamics, in addition to the specific needs of women, girls, and vulnerable people in the project locations to ensure safe, equitable, and dignified access to the services.

The conflict in Iraq and the protracted humanitarian crisis have had a severe impact on infrastructure and service delivery in general, which together with the COVID-19 pandemic and the rise of the unemployment rate has led to an increase in existing Gender Based Violence (GBV) and protection risks. The continuance of political, and economic instabilities and the decline of humanitarian aid are having a huge effect on the population as a whole; however, conflicts and emergencies impact women and girls differently, and understanding different roles, dynamics and needs will help improve the quality of and access to those services. Dohuk Governorates hosts 155,300 IDPs, including 105,500 living in camps and 45,700 in approx. 401 informal sites.
Key findings
 Around 40% of women in the targeted communities don’t feel that their hygiene needs are being met.
 Around 70% of women in the targeted communities don’t get consulted about their needs by aid organizations
 Women and girls face limited mobility which mainly due to cost of transportation, security, and cultural acceptance
 Water resources are controlled and allocated to families by the Mukhtars.
 Household decision making pertaining to finance are mainly controlled by men, whereas domestic decisions are jointly made. Read More...

Rapid Gender Analysis Al Hamdaniya District, Ninewa Governorate, Iraq September 2022

CARE International in Iraq (CARE Iraq) with the support of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs – Czech Republic is providing Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) and protection mainstreaming services in three villages in Al Hamdaniya District in Ninewa governorate. CARE Iraq is directly implementing both services. CARE Iraq aims to understand different gender norms, roles, and dynamics, in addition to the specific needs of women, girls and vulnerable people in the project locations to ensure safe, equitable and dignified access to the services.

The conflict in Iraq and the protracted humanitarian crisis have had a severe impact on infrastructure and service delivery in general, which together with the COVID-19 pandemic and the rise of the unemployment rate has led to an increase in existing Gender Based Violence (GBV) and protection risks. The continuance of political and economic instabilities is having a huge effect on the population as a whole; however, conflicts and emergencies impact women and girls differently, and understanding different roles, dynamics and needs will help improve the quality of and access to those services. In Ninewa Governorate, the water situation in Al Hamdaniya District, among others, is dire due to a combination of poor management and neglect of the water infrastructure in the district. The current drought phenomena have also caused widespread water scarcity in many parts of Iraq for drinking, agricultural needs, and multiple other purposes. There are several concerns around the hygiene and WASH needs of the targeted community members. In the targeted communities, access to water infrastructure, and access to water in general both for drinking and domestic use are challenges that the communities face in addition to the inadequate sanitation facilities.
Key Findings:
* Cost of transportation is one of the major factors that limit the mobility of community members especially women and girls.
• The majority of the community especially women don’t get consulted about their needs by aid organizations
• Around a third of the targeted community feel that their hygiene needs are not being met.
• There is a dramatic increase in the reports of GBV and the severity of the risks of GBV in Iraq.
• The majority of women do not participate in community decision making.
• Loss of livelihoods and income is prevalent in the targeted communities Read More...

Uganda: Refugees and Host Communities in Yumbe and Terego Districts Rapid Gender Analysis

The conflict in South Sudan expanded to the southern parts of the country in July 2016, which led to an influx of refugees in Northern Uganda. Uganda hosts 1.5 mill. refugees in total, many live in refugee settlements. The four largest settlements in West Nile are Bidi Bidi, Palorinya, Rhino and Imvepi, with numbers of refugees ranging from 60,000 to more than 240,000. According to a report of the World bank and Uganda Office of the Prime Minister (OPM) on gender-based violence (GBV) in Uganda from 2020, more than 80 % of the refugees and asylum seekers in Uganda are women and children. During the conflict, violence against women and girls such as the abduction of girls and the use of rape as a weapon of war was used. Women and girls fleeing to Uganda reported sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV) “to have taken place throughout the route of migration within South Sudan itself as well as when crossing the border." Read More...

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