climate change resilience

Baseline Study Report of Flash Flood and Lightning

The baseline study concerning the impact of flash floods and lightning on the SUFAL-II project aims to analyze the context of flash floods and lightning, assess the scopes of the Early Warning System, and examine current trends of of hazard-specific responses taken by individual, community, and institutional levels. The objective of this project is to bolster the capabilities of vulnerable communities and institutions in Bangladesh to implement forecast-based early actions. The study employed a mixed-method approach, amalgamating both quantitative and qualitative data collection and analysis techniques. This was done to assess the context, accessibility, usage, and potential of early warning systems and early actions for mitigating the risks associated with the flash floods and lightning hazards.
The study encompassed three districts prone to flash floods, namely Sylhet, Sunamganj, and Netrokona. For the treatment group areas, the selected Upazilas were Gowainghat, Dharmapasha, and Khaliajuri and for control group areas, the selected areas were Sylhet Sadar, Sunamganj Sadar, Madan.
Data was collected from 502 households, 12 focus group discussions, and 19 key informant interviews. The study's findings indicate that flash floods and lightning are recurrent and severe hazards that pose significant threats to the communities lives, assets, and livelihoods. These hazards are disproportionately affect women, individuals with disabilities and farmers. The study also identified several shortcomings in the existing early warning systems, including issues related to timeliness, quality, coverage, accessibility, comprehension, and trust.

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Final Evaluation: MACP Project – Disaster Ready Communities in Vulnerable Rural Areas of Guatemala

CARE Guatemala implemented during 2020 to 2023 the “Disaster Ready Communities in vulnerable rural areas of Guatemala MACP” project financed by the Margaret A. Cargill Philanthropies Foundation, donating US$2,300,000.00 (Two million three hundred thousand dollars) for its execution. The initiative was executed in municipalities of Joyabaj, San Bartolomé Jocotenango and Sacapulas in the Department of Quiché; Aguacatán and Chiantla in the Department of Huehuetenango and Salamá, in the Department of Baja Verapaz.

Its general objective was increased empowerment and leadership of vulnerable communities, to provide an efficient, gender-sensitive emergency response, in a context of natural disasters and health crises at the end of the project.

Specific objectives were:

a) Communities after the first year of the project implement social measures to reduce vulnerability and risks. b) Communities execute social actions together with municipal governments to address the COVID-19 pandemic.

Additionally, the project defined five results:

1. During the first year of the project, communities have a well-informed and adequately trained, inclusive, and self-organized group responsible of leading disaster preparedness. 2. Communities have greater capacities for disaster response with the respective plans and inclusive systems implemented and updated, incorporating what they learned at the end of the project. 3. Communities are connected, for a second year, with the project, to municipal governments and have access to technical and financial assistance. 4. The project contributes to increase the capacity of nearby communities and local government units in disaster preparedness. 5. Communities respond efficiently to health crises and coordinate with health services for appropriate use of the respective protocols.

The team hired for this purpose carried out a series of capacity-building activities, investment in infrastructure, providing support and technical training to leaders. The project was executed by a multidisciplinary staff and some activities were implemented by hiring temporary, external consultants with expertise on related topics.

Upon completion, CARE Guatemala requested a final evaluation. This process has allowed us to identify a series of important findings related to the project cycle. Among them, a design and execution with a high level of pertinence, coherence, relevance, efficiency/effectiveness, impact and sustainability. A process to strengthen the capabilities of the Local Coordinators for Disaster Reduction COLRED was successfully carried out in 60 communities from 6 municipalities benefited.

As an immediate result of the strengthening process, 60 COLRED have the capabilities to identify, monitor and act during emergencies caused by disasters and have higher levels of cohesion compared to the beginning of the project. They have also complied with all the steps to obtain CONRED accreditation and have prepared and received approval of its Local Response Plans. They are articulated to community and municipal processes through the Municipal Instances of

Comprehensive Disaster Risk Management IMGIRD, spaces that have different levels of development based on their management and formalization, starting as units to Municipal Directorates. This municipal space was strengthened by COMRED whose members were trained and strengthened. Participating communities received support to renovate facilities that could potentially become shelters, School Committees were trained and organizational support that will allow them to adequately manage disaster risks in the context of their educational process.

Since its formulation, the project had a solid approach and was committed to promoting equity in participation processes including women and men. However, disaggregated analysis tools and specific gender action plans were prepared after the project had begun. This caused, in part, that gender implementation suffered some limitations during activities. However, it has been satisfying to note that, despite these limitations, the women involved in the process are empowered, have an understanding, defend the importance of their participation and identify the basic actions related to community management and mobilization for disaster reduction and emergency action.

The findings documented in this report were verified by implementing a comprehensive work methodology that reviewed documents produced by the project, analyzed the activity cycle, reviewed the financial and administrative aspects of the project, as well as documents and systematizations prepared, carried out interviews with three levels of execution involved in the project (senior management, middle management and operational team), with focus group, and made field visits to execute direct observation and interviews with participants. At the end of the document, there are pertinent conclusions and recommendations. Read More...

SHOUHARDO III Performance and Impact evaluation

This report evaluates the performance of the SHOUHARDO III project, which targets poor households in the char and haor (wetland) areas of Bangladesh and aims to address food and income insecurity, maternal and child health and nutrition, women’s and youth empowerment, as well as improve access to public services while building resilience capacities. This evaluation employs three methodologies: qualitative inquiry, pre-post comparison, and impact evaluation. The impact evaluation matches communities treated by SHOUHARDO III with untreated communities ex-post, using baseline stunting rates from the 2014 DHS dataset. The evaluation finds that the SHOUHARDO III project engaged more than 40% of households surveyed within target villages and successfully targeted poor and female-headed households. The analysis of baseline and endline statuses (pre-post analysis) of households in the SHOUHARDO III-targeted areas demonstrates that households from these areas improved across several indicators, including poverty levels, the nutritional status of women and children, women’s empowerment, and gender equity. From a qualitative standpoint, participants from areas where SHOUHARDO III appeared well-implemented offers insights into the potential of the interventions. The qualitative evaluation found mechanisms of change in several areas that can be built upon and enhanced. Qualitative findings show that the program succeeded in promoting multi-sectoral change at household and community levels. They also show that SHOUHARDO III effectively targeted services to the most food-insecure, Poor and Extremely Poor members of communities, and its multi-generational and gender-inclusive approach to its interventions facilitated community acceptance. From the impact evaluation, it is likely that we can credit SHOUHARDO III with improvements in women’s dietary diversity, women and children’s minimum acceptable diet, antenatal care access, and the increase in participation across several sectors. In addition, households in SHOUHARDO III villages experienced statistically significant differences in one resilience indicator, and households in program villages that experienced major shocks were better able to maintain their food consumption than similar households in comparison villages. However, the impact evaluation does not find meaningful differences between households in targeted communities and households in non-targeted communities in terms of women’s mobility and decision-making, children’s nutritional status (including child stunting and underweight status), children’s diarrhea, exclusive breastfeeding, household hunger, and improved use of health and nutrition services overall. Improvements in mostmeasured conditions in the SHOUHARDO III program areas appear to have been matched by similar improvements in non-program areas, suggesting broader forces may account for them. Ultimately understanding differences between program areas and non-program areas can help inform decisions about future chapters of the SHOUHARDO III program and other development food security programs to ensure the most effective programs for vulnerable populations. Understanding the dynamics and mechanisms of change and responses of participants to interventions can also inform future work. Salient findings are also important to highlight for action. The research team concludes this report with recommendations. Read More...

Conflict and Climate Vulnerability and Capacity Analysis (CCVCA) Ségou region, Mali (GENRE+II Project))

The Ségou region of Mali is experiencing a steady increase in impacts from climate change, such as more erratic and reduced rainfall, increased temperatures, intensified seasonal flooding when rains do occur, and increased incidence of human and livestock diseases. These impacts interact with population pressures and natural resource management challenges to affect historical land use practices, such as agriculture and pastoralism, in the semi-urban and rural communes within the cercles of Baraouéli, Bla and Ségou. In these communes, women engage in a range of livelihood and subsistence activities related to natural resources, such as market gardening and forest product harvesting, often significantly augmenting household income. Therefore, it is important to include women in conflict resolution mechanisms over land and water, accounting for a scenario where climate impacts are predicted to intensify.
The Genre++ project, funded by the UK’s Foreign, Commonwealth and Development Office (FCDO), works with communities to identify and address interrelated causes and impacts of climate vulnerability, conflict and gender inequality. A novel Climate and Conflict Vulnerability and Capacity Assessment (CCVCA) tool was used to carry out a rapid participatory analysis of vulnerabilities and adaptive capacity with representatives from 12 communes in Ségou region (144 female, 156 male) from 9 to 20 March 2023. This report summarises the results of this analysis, discussing how climate change has interacted with other economic and demographic pressures to create tensions around natural resource management. It also details the community members’ current responses, as well as their recommendations for future action. Read More...

Rapid Gender Analysis on Power and Participation Ségou region, Mali (GENRE+II PROJECT)

This Rapid Gender Analysis on Power and Participation (RGA-P) is part of the GENRE+II project in the cercles of Bla, Ségou and Barouéli in the Ségou region of Mali. The project is funded by the Foreign and Commonwealth Office (FCDO) to build capacity for climate change adaptation, gender equality and social cohesion in the Ségou region.
This RGA-P is the first step in CARE's Women Lead in Emergencies (WLiE) model. It summarises the impact of the crisis on gender roles and relations, the capacity of women/girls to cope, participate and influence decision-making in response to the crisis, and offers ideas on how women can strengthen their own participation and leadership. The RGA-P is based on secondary and primary data collection carried out in March 2023 in eight communes in the cercles of Ségou, Bla and Barouéli in the Ségou region. Read More...

Baseline Study of SUFAL Project Funded by ECHO “Supporting Flood Forecast-based Action and Learning in Bangladesh” (SUFAL)

Supporting Flood Forecast-based Action and Learning in Bangladesh (SUFAL) is being studied in 4 unions (Chinadulli, Kulkandi, Noarpara, Shapdhari) of Islampur Upazila of Jamalpur district, 4 unions (Bhartkhali, Ghuridaha, Haldia, Saghata) of Sagatha Upazila of Gaibandha district and 4 unions (Begumganj, Buraburi, Hatia, and Saheber Alga) of Ulipur Upazila of Kurigram districts by BCAS with the support of Care Bangladesh and the consortium members including Concern Worldwide, Islamic Relief Bangladesh, and the Regional Integrated Multi-Hazard Early Warning System (RIMES) and financially supported by ECHO. SUFAL will set up a Forecast-based Early Action (FbA) system in three northern flood-prone districts: Kurigram, Gaibandha, and Jamalpur. There are many char land in the study area which are the propensities of disaster. The inhabitants of Char land are the most vulnerable and poorest community who are in search of livelihood. Their daily life is full of uncertainty. Read More...

SUFAL II Baseline Report

The project “Scaling up Flood Forecast Based- Action and Learning in Bangladesh (SUFAL) – Phase II”, is aimed to strengthen resilience of communities to the impacts of frequent monsoon floods. SUFAL-II is being implemented in the districts of Kurigram and Gaibandha, Jamalpur and Bogura. In each district, two types of interventions (one intervention in one upazila) are being implemented. They are -
- Full scale implementation – Capacity development and support to communities to implement sector-specific early actions with extended lead times prior to monsoon floods.
- Partial scale implementation – Technical and capacity building support to the Disaster Management Committees (DMCs) and government officials, with the aim to demonstrate how the FbA mechanism can be operationalized in a district.
The selected areas in each district have ‘medium’ to ‘very high’ risk profiles as per INFORM Index on Risk Management. The risk profiles have been calculated based on the modelling of exposure to hazard, vulnerability and coping mechanisms in place.
Methodology
The baseline study uses a mixed method analysis. Thus, both quantitative and qualitative tools were administered to collect relevant data to assess the baseline status. The quantitative tool was administered to a sample of 1500 households, which were distributed across 60 wards. For the qualitative aspect of the study, a total of 28 Key Informant Interviews (KIIs) were conducted with DMCs and local government officials and 30 Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) were conducted with the community members.
Key Findings
Background of respondents
Under the household survey, a total of 1494 interviews were conducted, of which 1394 interviews were conducted in three treatment groups and 100 interviews were conducted in the control group. The majority of respondents were female (74%), Muslim (95.7%), and of Bangali (99.8%) ethnicity. Approximately 79% of households reported a monthly income that exceeded 5000 Taka.
Floods in 2022
Of all the respondents, 78.4% experienced floods in 2022, with the highest occurrence in the month of Ashar - Srabon. Treatment group 1 (64.7%) and the control group (70%) had a lower flood incidence compared to Treatment groups 2 (89.1%) and Treatment group 3 (86.8%).
Early warning
Of all respondents in the three treatment groups who faced floods in 2022, only 36.3% received early warnings. It was observed that a higher percentage of respondents from the treatment group 1 (69.4%) received early warnings as compared to treatment group 3 (35.4%) and treatment group 2 (11.8%). Overall, out of all the respondents who reported receiving early warning, 85.8% reported that they received it 1 to 5 days prior to the floods. Television (40.1%) and friends/relatives (29.7%) were the primary sources of early warning information. Among other sources, only 8.5% of respondents reported receiving early warning via Audio calls, 19.2% reported from community volunteers (miking or household visit) and 1.2% via digital boards. Among those who received early warnings, 60.3% had information about flood intensity/water level, and 52.9% had information about the lead time. However, only 36.2% received guidance on early actions, 24.7% received livestock advisory, and 13.0% received agromet advisory. This indicates a lack of agromet advisory, flood preparedness advisory, and health awareness across all treatment groups. Overall, 67.8% of respondents found the early warnings timely and understandable, and 98.8% expressed trust in the early warnings. Read More...

Impacto del cambio climático en la Inseguridad Alimentaria Áreas afectadas por ETA, IOTA y Julia

La depresión tropical Julia impactó en Guatemala, entre el 7 y 10 de octubre de 2022. Los estragos causados por esta tormenta se logran entender en el marco de un año con lluvias estacionales intensas, que mantenían al país con un alto porcentaje de humedad en los suelos. Los departamentos más afectados fueron: Izabal, Alta Verapaz, Huehuetenango, Quiché, Petén, Zacapa, Chiquimula y Suchitepéquez. Estos departamentos, coinciden con la mayoría de los que fueron afectados por Eta e Iota en el año 2020, por lo cual, el impacto de Julia fue enorme. A esto se sumaban los efectos de la pandemia por COVID-19, que aún presenta rebrotes con bajas tasas de vacunación de la población. Este contexto humanitario complejo y multifactorial, que se tenía al momento del ingreso de la depresión tropical Julia, explica en gran parte, la difícil situación enfrentada por la población afectada.
En octubre de 2022, en el Informe, CONRED reportó que las lluvias asociadas a depresión tropical Julia provocaron 1995 incidentes, con deslizamientos de tierra, derrumbes, hundimientos, inundaciones, entre otros. Fueron afectadas 1,358,158 personas, se evacuaron 58,634 y 19,372 fueron damnificadas, de las cuales 10,319 fueron llevadas a albergues. El perfil de las familias más afectadas muestra que el mayor impacto lo tuvieron hogares rurales y pertenecientes a los pueblos indígenas Q’eqchi’, K’iche’, Mam, Kaqchikel, Garífuna y Chorti´, y con ingresos menores a 3 mil quetzales, que se dedican principalmente a la agricultura de subsistencia, servicios, ventas y trabajos informales. La Evaluación de Daños y Análisis de Necesidades –EDAN-, desarrollada por CONRED, reportó que las viviendas afectadas fueron 2,303 en riesgo, 2,946, con daño leve, 15,430 con daño moderado y 996 con daño severo. Las infraestructuras públicas dañadas fueron 450 carreteras afectadas, 7 carreteras destruidas; 199 escuelas afectadas; 124 puentes dañados, 14 puentes destruidos, 14 puentes hamaca dañados y 1 destruido. (Gobierno de Guatemala, 2022)1
La depresión tropical Julia, ha impactado directamente en la calidad de vida de las personas afectadas, dejando pérdidas que profundizan su pobreza y precariedad:
• El 62% de las familias entrevistadas, ya habían sido afectadas por Eta e Iota en 2020. Es decir que son poblaciones con una situación constante de amenaza y precarización por la pérdida continua de sus medios de vida. Las pérdidas principales fueron debido a inundaciones, deslaves y derrumbes; afectando tierras, siembras, cosechas, semillas, árboles y animales de patio, y en menor medida, ganado, equipo y
herramientas y vehículos.
• De las 107 personas entrevistadas, un 35% tuvo daños en su vivienda. De estas, solo tres familias han recibido apoyo para reparar daños o reconstruir su vivienda. Muchas de estas familias ya habían tenido daños con las tormentas Eta e Iota en 2020.
• En el acceso al agua, el 4% de las familias tuvo daños severos en sus sistemas de agua y 5% perdieron el acceso al agua, debido a la destrucción de tuberías, pozos y contaminación de fuentes de agua.
• En lo relacionado con el acceso a servicios de salud, las comunidades que no tienen puesto de salud no tuvieron acceso a atención con personal de salud o a medicamentos durante la emergencia. Al igual que en otros RGA realizados anteriormente, se constata que el sistema de salud tiene limitadas capacidades para atender a la población, así como, para responder a emergencias y atender a la población afectada.
• El RGA reporta que las personas entrevistadas, en su mayoría, tienen ingresos inferiores al salario mínimo y al precio de la Canasta Básica Ampliada – CBA-. El 62% de las familias tienen ingresos menores a tres mil quetzales, y de estos, el 31% son inferiores a 1,500 quetzales. Estos ingresos no les permite generar condiciones para enfrentar este tipo de emergencias.
• En su mayoría, las familias dependen de los pocos medios de vida que poseen, y que se vieron afectados por las lluvias, inundaciones y deslaves. Read More...

Yen Sore Final Evaluation

The Yensore programme is a continuation of CARE Denmark and CARE Ghana’s support to Ghanaian civil society. The first phase of Yensore was implemented from 2013 to 2017. The second phase, which was implemented 2018 – 2021, continued to support four partners, KASA, Wacam, Civic Response, and UCSOND. The programme focused on organisational development and natural resource advocacy in the areas of mining, oil & gas, forestry and climate change. For the second phase the overall objective was to ensure that “the rights of vulnerable communities to natural resources essential for their food security and resilient livelihoods are respected, protected and fulfilled through inclusive and responsible governance of natural resources”. Read More...

LIVELIHOODS FOR RESILIENCE ACTIVITY

In October2019, CARE Ethiopia commissioned Care Plc. to conduct repeated annual intermediate result (IR) assessment of the Livelihoods for Resilience Activity over the coming three years, corresponding to the fiscal year of the project from 2019-2022. The study involves assessing project’s intermediate result that have been achieved based on the key performance indicators using information collected randomly selected project participating households as well as conducting multiyear trend analysis of changes in the well-being of project participants based on panel data are collected from 400 households . Read More...

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