Social Norms

A Baseline Study and Social Norms Analysis using SNAP for the project BERHAN: Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights Initiative in Amhara Region, Ethiopia

Background: BERHAN – Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights initiative in Amhara region of Ethiopia seeks to support women and girls in Fogera and Estie woredas to safely exercise their sexual and reproductive health rights, leading to improved wellbeing (impact).

Objective: The purpose of this study was to understand the social norms that are associated with the practices of female genital cutting (FGC) and early marriage (EM), and to establish a baseline for all project indicators.

The quantitative survey was conducted on a randomly selected sample of 375 respondents comprising of men, women, girls, and boys (adults and adolescents). Quantitative data were collected using an interviewer administered structured questionnaire. Qualitative data were collected by masters and PhD degree holders, and quantitative data were collected by trained and experienced BSC level data collectors.

Results: The results revealed that FGC and EM were common practices in the community with a prevalence of 85.0% and 64.0% respectively. The community held the practices because of various reasons among which are cultural preservation and lack of knowledge. The community members were highly influenced by the sanctions that made them change their initial positions. Generally, women could not use contraceptive methods without permission from their partners or family members and this applies to all modern contraceptive methods.Only 3.7% of girls and women in the age group of 15-49 were able to use a modern contraceptive of their choice and, only 30.5% were able to decide on their own reproductive health care use. Read More...

Promoting Healthier Lifestyles among Youth in Bosnia and Herzegovina by Challenging Gender Stereotypes – Young Men Initiative Project II (YMI) External Evaluation

Young Men Initiative – “Promoting Healthier Lifestyles among Youth in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH) by Challenging Gender Stereotypes II project’s overall goal is to increase the uptake of healthy, nonviolent and gender equitable lifestyles among young men and women in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Young Men Initiative II (YMI II) project builds upon CARE´s comprehensive and programmatic effort to fight interpersonal and gender based violence (GBV) as well as to improve gender equality in Bosnia and Herzegovina and address preventative issues related to youth extremism and violence. This project aims at scaling up and mainstreaming earlier achievements related to the implementation of the Gender Transformative Life Skills program, or short Program Y, via targeted advocacy and a close cooperation with relevant stakeholder through the support of movement/coalition building through the development of new alliances that engage parents and citizens in supporting gender equality focused life skills education program. Through a comprehensive analysis both of the project documentation and the information provided the individual interviews with over 20 project participants, this evaluation drew a set of conclusions, both from the perspective of best practices and key challenges, which consequently led to a set of recommendations for CARE International Balkans on how to continue making this important social change [31 pages]. Read More...

The Double Day: Exploring unpaid work and care for female garment workers in Bangladesh

The UK Government funded Work and Opportunities for Women (WOW) Programme is a five-year initiative to enhance the economic empowerment of 300,000 women working in global value chains by 2022. WOW is delivered by a consortium comprised of BSR, CARE International, the University of Manchester, and Social Development Direct, and led by PwC.

WOW’s approach to reaching women workers is through partnerships with multinational companies and business initiatives to improve women’s participation in their supply chains. One such partnership is with a fashion retailer who expressed an interest in learning more about the unpaid care that female garment workers in their supply chains carry out—recognising it as a major barrier to women’s economic participation.

The WOW alliance entered into a collaborative partnership with the company to undertake original primary research into the unpaid work and care burden facing female garment workers in Bangladesh.
The research has been collated into an external report – The Double Day – launched in July 2020 by the WOW Alliance.
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PROMOTING HEALTHIER LIFESTYLES AMONG YOUTH IN BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA BY CHALLENGING GENDER STEREOTYPES II – YOUNG MEN INITIATIVE PROJECT II (YMI II)

Young Men Initiative – Promoting Healthier Lifestyles among Youth in Bosnia and Herzegovina by Challenging Gender Stereotypes II or Young Men Initiative II (YMI II) project builds upon CARE´s comprehensive and programmatic effort to fight interpersonal and gender-based violence (GBV) as well as to improve gender equality in Bosnia and Herzegovina and address preventative issues related to youth extremism and violence. The project’s overall goal was to increase the uptake of healthy, nonviolent and gender-equitable lifestyles among young men and young women in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The endline survey is carried out to contribute to a comprehensive understanding of the overall project progress focusing on changes in knowledge, attitudes and behaviors related to gender-based violence, gender equality, healthy lifestyles among young men and young women from Bosnia and Herzegovina who were participating in the ‘Program Y’ in target schools in the period from 2018-2020. It assessed whether there were differences in attitudes, knowledge and behavior of young men and young women before and after the completion of the project activities in high schools. The endline survey examined the effects of project activities on the following spheres: views regarding gender relations; health of young men and young women, including mental health and the use of psychoactive substances; knowledge about sexual and reproductive health; experience of youngsters with suffered and perpetrated violence.
The project is organized and supported by CARE International, the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC) and the Oak Foundation. It was implemented with the cooperation of local youth and non-governmental organizations: Association “XY” (Sarajevo), Perpetuum mobile – Institute for Youth and Community Development (Banja Luka), NGO “Youth Power” (Mostar) and youth NGOs: Forum Theatre (East Sarajevo), New Vision, (Novi Travnik), Otaharin (Bijeljina), Zemlja djece u BiH (Tuzla), Proni (Brčko), Youth Club “Pod istim suncem” (Jablanica).
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Tipping Point 2 Baseline Nepal

This report presents findings from the baseline survey of the CARE Tipping Point Program (TPP) impact evaluation in Nepal (May to July 2019), which is being undertaken in Kapilvastu and Rupandehi districts. CARE’s full Tipping Point Program—implemented in Nepal and Bangladesh—focuses on addressing the root causes of child, early, and forced marriage (CEFM) and on promoting the rights of adolescent girls through community-level programming and evidence generation. The approach of the CARE Tipping Point Program relies on challenging social expectations and repressive gender norms and promoting girl-centric and girl-led activism to enable adolescent girls to identify and to move into social spaces where they can challenge age-based and gender-based inequalities. The operational approach of the CARE Tipping Point Program entails the synchronized engagement of different participant groups—adolescent girls, adolescent boys, parents and community members, and community leaders—around four programmatic pillars: adolescent sexual and reproductive health and rights, social-norms, girl-led movement-building, and alternative livelihoods. The Program supports the creation of public spaces for all community members to engage in the dialogue.
The Care Tipping Point Program impact evaluation in Nepal is being undertaken through a multi-institutional collaboration between implementing partners of the Gender Justice team at CARE USA and CARE Nepal with researchers in the Hubert Department of Global Health, Rollins School of Public Health at Emory University and Interdisciplinary Data Analysts (IDA) in Kathmandu, Nepal.
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Tipping Point Phase 2 Baseline Bangladesh

Although the body of evidence on how to prevent child marriage is growing, its rate did not decline at a desirable pace. Previous interventions targeted many of the root causes of child marriage. However, despite wide recognition of the need to change pro-child marriage social norms, attempt to study the impact of social norms change in addressing child marriage was rarely investigated or not investigated well. Lack of understanding of social norms and how to change them effectively impedes development of effective and sustainable child marriage prevention programs. Moreover, for most of the interventions, there were no rigorous evaluations. Furthermore, the interventions that had strong evaluation designs did not necessarily focus on social norms change. It is against this background that the current research employs a cluster randomized controlled trial (CRCT) to evaluate Tipping Point (TP), an integrated social norms intervention designed by CARE to address child marriage in Bangladesh. This report presents findings from the baseline survey. The report focuses on assessing the rates of child marriage in TP study areas and decision making ability of the adolescent girls. Read More...

Social Norms Analysis Plot Final Report: SAFE Justice Project

The SAFE Justice project was funded by the Department for International Development (DFID) and implemented in five districts in Nepal (Gorkha, Dhading, Sindhupalchowk, Accham and Bajura) between October 2016 and September 2019, as part of the DFID-funded Integrated Programme for Strengthening Security and Justice in Nepal.

SAFE Justice Project aims to promote more active justice seeking behavior among marginalized populations in general and women and girls in particular breaking culture of silence; responsiveness of justice service providers with effective and gender sensitive services.

In comparison to baseline the midline survey revealed only small nuances/cracks on seeking justice for IPV. However, the end-line study conducted in this quarter has revealed remarkable changes around the empirical and normative expectations on seeking justice for IPV. This has also shown family and friend’s sanctions as well as positive and negative exceptions to change the norms. In this report, comparison between baseline and end-line assessments are presented. Read More...

Situación del Trabajo Doméstico en Honduras: Estudio de Percepción sobre el Trabajo Doméstico en Honduras

El presente estudio se enfocó en la recolección de posturas, conocimientos y comportamientos de miembros de la sociedad hondureña acerca del trabajo doméstico remunerado. Esto con el objetivo de conocer cuáles son los patrones culturales de pensamiento que deben abordarse en procesos de sensibilización que tengan como fin mejorar las condiciones de vida de las personas que se dedican al trabajo doméstico remunerado.

En el presente documento se rescatan los resultados encontrados como producto de la aplicación de 660 cuestionarios en las ciudades de Tegucigalpa, San Pedro Sula, La Ceiba, Santa Rosa de Copán, Juticalpa y Choluteca el primer semestre del año 2018. Read More...

Measuring Social Norms and Girls’ Empowerment Report of the SenseMaker study of the

This report presents the findings from a SenseMaker story collection process conducted as part of a qualitative evaluation of CARE International’s Tipping Point project in Sunamganj, Bangladesh. Tipping Point aims to reduce the incidence of child marriage through shifting social norms at the community level, addressing the root causes of the practice and seeking to holistically effect change at the level of individuals, communities, and the broader enabling environment. The SenseMaker study was conducted by the Overseas Development Institute and researchers from Jahangirnagar University, in close cooperation with Tipping Point’s two local implementing
partners, JASHIS and ASD in Sunamganj district. The evaluation team collected 875 stories in total: 325 from girls; 214 from boys; and 336 from mothers and fathers of adolescents.

The primary analytical approach for assessing the nature of change within Tipping Point communities was comparing the data from Boundary Partners (girls and boys who participate in Tipping Point ‘Fun Centre’ groups, and parents of adolescents who participate in Fun Centre groups) with data from non-Boundary Partners from the same village. Read More...

Women’s economic empowerment in emergency contexts: Niger case study

While discussion of the ‘Humanitarian, Development and Peace Nexus’ continues within the sector, there remains debate as to whether women’s economic empowerment is a luxury, or even feasible in humanitarian contexts where the priority is to keep people alive. Increasingly, however, humanitarians are seeing interventions aimed at women’s economic empowerment in emergency contexts as a key tool to increase protection and support people in crises to live in dignity. CARE set out to analyse whether financial inclusion strategies like community-led savings groups may in fact represent a way to not only respond to crises, but also to build resilience against them, even in highly fluid contexts.

In June 2018, CARE teams conducted fieldwork in two areas where it is implementing ongoing humanitarian interventions. CARE organised focus groups and interviews with communities and individuals in Diffa and Konni where it has delivered humanitarian assistance. The interventions combined blanket cash distributions, and the establishment of savings and credit groups which also provided women with life skills and business training to set up small businesses.

Within a crisis setting, combining a savings group structure including income generation support with humanitarian assistance such as food and non-food items (NFIs) helped women not only to meet basic needs in a more sustainable way, but also improved their independent access to and control over money.

During emergencies, providing women with humanitarian cash to cover basic needs allowed women in savings groups to continue saving and to invest in income generating activities (IGA), rather than using up capital on food.

If crises continue to hit, the positive impact of savings groups set up in emergencies can become strained. In this case, further cash interventions can preserve small businesses.

Membership of savings groups and receipt of IGAs and life skills training increased women’s income and confidence. Membership of a savings group provides psychosocial benefits to women who are suffering anxiety, depression or trauma by providing a social network that meets and talks regularly. Read More...

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