Disaster Risk Reduction

Moving Urban Poor Communities in the Philippines Toward Resilience(MOVE UP 3)

An external evaluation was conducted from 10 October 2020 to 21 December 2020for the third phase of the Moving Urban Poor Communities in the Philippines toward Resilience (MOVE UP 3) Project in the Philippines. Contributing to the resilience building of urban poor populations in highly urbanized cities that are most vulnerable to disasters, MOVE UP 3 specifically aimed at increasing the preparedness and risk reduction capacities of the local populations and government units through the replication and scaling up of interrelated urban resilience strategies on alternative temporary shelters (ATS) and resilient livelihoods (RL) including social protection and risk transfer, in hazard-prone, urban poor communities in Marikina City and Taguig City in Metro Manila, Cebu City in the Visayas, and Cotabato City in Mindanao. The external evaluation determined if the project has achieved its intended objective; identified the contextual factors that have enabled or hindered the delivery of the expected outcomes; assessed the overall performance of MOVE UP 3; and provided recommendations on how the project could further be scaled up or replicated. Read More...

SUFAL II Baseline Report

The project “Scaling up Flood Forecast Based- Action and Learning in Bangladesh (SUFAL) – Phase II”, is aimed to strengthen resilience of communities to the impacts of frequent monsoon floods. SUFAL-II is being implemented in the districts of Kurigram and Gaibandha, Jamalpur and Bogura. In each district, two types of interventions (one intervention in one upazila) are being implemented. They are -
- Full scale implementation – Capacity development and support to communities to implement sector-specific early actions with extended lead times prior to monsoon floods.
- Partial scale implementation – Technical and capacity building support to the Disaster Management Committees (DMCs) and government officials, with the aim to demonstrate how the FbA mechanism can be operationalized in a district.
The selected areas in each district have ‘medium’ to ‘very high’ risk profiles as per INFORM Index on Risk Management. The risk profiles have been calculated based on the modelling of exposure to hazard, vulnerability and coping mechanisms in place.
The baseline study uses a mixed method analysis. Thus, both quantitative and qualitative tools were administered to collect relevant data to assess the baseline status. The quantitative tool was administered to a sample of 1500 households, which were distributed across 60 wards. For the qualitative aspect of the study, a total of 28 Key Informant Interviews (KIIs) were conducted with DMCs and local government officials and 30 Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) were conducted with the community members.
Key Findings
Background of respondents
Under the household survey, a total of 1494 interviews were conducted, of which 1394 interviews were conducted in three treatment groups and 100 interviews were conducted in the control group. The majority of respondents were female (74%), Muslim (95.7%), and of Bangali (99.8%) ethnicity. Approximately 79% of households reported a monthly income that exceeded 5000 Taka.
Floods in 2022
Of all the respondents, 78.4% experienced floods in 2022, with the highest occurrence in the month of Ashar - Srabon. Treatment group 1 (64.7%) and the control group (70%) had a lower flood incidence compared to Treatment groups 2 (89.1%) and Treatment group 3 (86.8%).
Early warning
Of all respondents in the three treatment groups who faced floods in 2022, only 36.3% received early warnings. It was observed that a higher percentage of respondents from the treatment group 1 (69.4%) received early warnings as compared to treatment group 3 (35.4%) and treatment group 2 (11.8%). Overall, out of all the respondents who reported receiving early warning, 85.8% reported that they received it 1 to 5 days prior to the floods. Television (40.1%) and friends/relatives (29.7%) were the primary sources of early warning information. Among other sources, only 8.5% of respondents reported receiving early warning via Audio calls, 19.2% reported from community volunteers (miking or household visit) and 1.2% via digital boards. Among those who received early warnings, 60.3% had information about flood intensity/water level, and 52.9% had information about the lead time. However, only 36.2% received guidance on early actions, 24.7% received livestock advisory, and 13.0% received agromet advisory. This indicates a lack of agromet advisory, flood preparedness advisory, and health awareness across all treatment groups. Overall, 67.8% of respondents found the early warnings timely and understandable, and 98.8% expressed trust in the early warnings. Read More...

A comparative study of Category Five Tropical Cyclone Pam in Vanuatu

Vanuatu is made up of 83 islands scattered across 1200 square kilometers of the Pacific Ocean, leaving remote populations isolated and making access and service delivery difficult. Vanuatu is well established as one of the most disaster-prone countries in the world, with cyclones, volcanoes, earthquakes, tsunamis, droughts, and floods among the hazards faced (UNU 2015). On 13 March 2015, Category Five Tropical Cyclone Pam (TC Pam), one of the worst cyclones to hit the Pacific region, struck Vanuatu and other Pacific Islands. TC Pam brought very destructive winds, storm surges, and flooding across huge areas of Vanuatu, destroying homes, schools, health facilities, crops, and livestock and affecting approximately 188,000 people, or 70% of the population (Government of Vanuatu 2015a). Read More...

Enhancing resilience through improved food security, disaster risk reduction and peaceful co-existence In South and East Darfur

This base line survey was conducted for the project “Enhancing resilience through improved food security, disaster risk reduction and peaceful co-existence in South and East Darfur.” The baseline was designed to collect data in the targeted communities in South and East Darfur State to assess the situation before the start of the project and determine the benchmarks for the designed project indicators. The baseline used mixed methods for data collection, including: desk review of project documents, individual interviews with household leaders using structured questionaires, FGDs with representatives from different groups in the communities, KIIs with institutional representatives.
The targeted areas in East and South Darfur are suffering from acute and chronic malnutrition. It is widespread and poses a significant public health problem, caused by acute food insecurity, unstable livelihoods, limited health services, poor hygiene practices and the lack of access to adequate safe drinking water and sanitation practices.
Women and children travel far distance to fetch water. During the rainy season, people may get poor quality water, which negatively affects their health. The government institutions have very poor capacity and lack the required logistics to provide good and sustainable water supply.
Women and girls are vulnerable to GBV, especially when they go far distances seeking different services such as water collection, firewood, farming, marketing and markets.
Women also face a very high burden, as they are responsible and participating in all household chores such as childcare, farming, fetching water, and transporting products to markets. This negatively affects children's nutrition and hygiene practices and exacerbates malnutrition. On other hand they have a limited access to resources and income-generating activities, and do not share any responsibilities in community structure, where men alone control and have access of most resources and have more decision-making power than women.
847,126 people in South Darfur and 124,351 in East Darfur are in IPC Phase 3 or higher and unable to meet their immediate needs. Kass and East Jebel Mara in South Darfur have the highest number of people experiencing acute food insecurity at 25% and 35% respectively, which need urgent intervention to contribute in reduction of acute food insecurity caused by currency devaluation, inflation, and local conflict is hitting both states.

Final Performance Evaluation of the ENSURE Development Food Assistance Program in Zimbabwe

Zimbabwe is rich in human and natural resources. However, for decades it has experienced food insecurity and poverty rooted in recurrent drought, economic instability, and policy decisions that severely undercut economic growth, agricultural production, and employment opportunities. The ENSURE project goal was to increase long-term food security among chronically food insecure rural households in 66 wards in six districts of Manicaland and Masvingo provinces, where food insecurity and stunting are higher than the national average. ENSURE’s main activities were to 1) improve nutrition among women of reproductive age and children under five years of age (CU5), 2) increase the income of vulnerable households, and 3) improve household resilience. Promoting gender equity in decision-making, access to financial services, and participation in project activities were cross-cutting priorities, as were environmental protection and disaster risk reduction. Read More...

Evaluation finale du projet Education For Change – EFC Education Pour le Changement « Jannde Yiriwere » de CARE International au Mali

Le projet Education Pour le changement utilise une approche de résilience en vue de répondre aux défis environnementaux et humains auxquels le Mali est actuellement confronté et qui affectent sérieusement l'éducation, la sécurité des jeunes et leur accès aux opportunités. Le projet combine la Réduction des Risques et Désastres (DRR) et la résilience, le Droit à la Santé Sexuelle et reproductive (SSR), l'alphabétisation appliquée, et les opportunités d'accès à l'autonomisation financière en milieu scolaire et chez les jeunes non scolaires à travers l'utilisation de nouvelles technologies bien établies. L'Education Pour le Changement a conçu et est en train de tester un modèle intégré d'éducation, de la sante de la reproduction et d’autonomisation jeunes pour une mise à échelle au profit des jeunes vulnérables et marginalisés du Mali.
Le projet est exécuté par CARE International et ses partenaires dans la région de Mopti depuis 5 ans. Les bénéficiaires qui sont les élèves, enseignants et communautés ont bénéficié de différentes activités pour améliorer leur connaissance sur les différentes thématiques du projet et offrir l’opportunité de l’utilisation de NTIC dans l’éducation scolaire des adolescents.
Le contexte opérationnel de la région de Mopti pendant la période de mise en oeuvre a été l'un des nombreux défis majeurs. En plus des sécheresses et des inondations périodiques, des épisodes périodiques de conflit civil ont contribué à une forte migration. Deux grèves prolongées des enseignants pendant les périodes de mise en oeuvre du programme ont entraîné des fermetures d'écoles pendant les périodes de mise en oeuvre. Et puis COVID-19 a contribué à la livraison d'activités et aux défis moins que prévu pour les communautés bénéficiaires. Ajouté à cela, 3 écoles n'était pas joignables pendant une partie du projet.
Comme tout programme, le cadre des indicateurs a été évalué en 2016 avant l’exécution des activités, une évaluation s’en est suivi en 2018. Le présent document présente les résultats de l’évaluation finale du projet. Read More...


CARE Nepal and Handicap International implemented a community-based disaster risk reduction project called VISTAR-II in Kailali, Dadeldhura, Kanchanpur, and Dang districts under the DIPECHO-VIIII cycle. This project was for a period of 22 months from March 1, 2015, to December 31, 2016. The project aimed to strengthen the resilience of communities and institutions to natural disasters through building leadership and management capacities from the community level to the national level. After five years of the VISTAR-II intervention, a Post Project Sustainability Study was carried out in two randomly selected intervention districts, namely Kailali and Kanchanpur. out of the four districts. Read More...

Supporting flood Forecast-based Action and Learning (SUFAL) Project in the 2020 Monsoon Floods

Background: ‘Supporting flood Forecast-based Action and Learning’ (SUFAL) project was designed to contribute to reducing the adverse impacts of the increasing frequency of catastrophic flooding on the vulnerable and poor communities through Forecast-based Action (FbA). The project was funded by The Directorate-General for European Civil Protection and Humanitarian Aid Operations (ECHO) and was implemented through a consortium led by CARE Bangladesh, with Concern Worldwide, Islamic Relief and Regional Integrated Multi-Hazard Early Warning System for Africa and Asia (RIMES). The project was implemented in three northern districts of Bangladesh: Jamalpur, Gaibandha, and Kurigram. FbA contributed to disseminating Flood Early Warning messages with a lead time of 10 – 15 days with timely and accurate weather forecast information, while and it also helping to identify potential flooding areas.

Methodology: The primary purpose of the study was to “Evaluate the impact of early actions” applied through the SUFAL project on household and community beneficiaries in responding to the 2020 monsoon floods. Customized OECD-DAC criteria, Quasi-experimental design (Difference-in-Difference Method), Knowledge, Attitude and Practices (KAP) framework and Value for Money (VfM) framework were used as guiding methods and tools to design study instruments and evaluate the impact of early actions at every stakeholder level. The study covered a control group in non-project areas and three treatment groups in the project areas: Treatment group 1 (EWM support), Treatment group 2 (EWM + Evacuation + Shelter + WASH support), Treatment group 3 (EWM + Evacuation + Shelter + WASH + Cash-grant support). Treatment groups were categorized in three different groups to conduct cost-effectiveness analysis. The study areas were in the districts of Kurigram (Hatia, Begumganj, Buraburi, Shaheber Alga unions), Gaibandha (Bharatkhali, Saghata, Ghuridaha, Haldia unions) and Jamalpur (Kulkandi, Chinaduli, Noarpara, Shapdhor. The survey sample consisted of 224 control respondents (of which 153 were women) and 754 treatment respondents (of which 426 were women), among which Sample for treatment group 1, 2, and 3 were 293 (100 women), 292 (192 women) and 169 (134 women), respectively. A total of 118 of the 754 treatment households interviewed through the survey were women-headed households and 38 out of 224 control group households were women headed households. The team had conducted 7 FGDs with community members in the three implementation areas, and 27 KIIs with community volunteers, project staff, government officials, and other related NGOs.

Impact: It was found through the study that less people in treatment group experienced damages compared to control households, treatment households saved more resources in 2020 than control households, and the average monetary values of assets saved by treatment group in 2020 were higher compared to the control group households. Due to the drawn-out duration and intensity of the flood in 2020, respondents reported that they were not able to prevent more damages although they took more early actions. Besides, treatment areas were the most flood affected areas. The early messages had helped the community to prevent damage to their assets and livelihoods. The percentage of damage prevented in agricultural sector for the treatment group had increased to 28% since the flood of 2019. The damage prevented in fisheries had increased significantly by 18 percent in 2020 in compared to that of 2019. The death of family members from waterborne diseases had decreased (except female members) in comparison to the previous flood in 2019. It is quite evident that the early warning message had enabled the males to take early actions regarding relocation of the vulnerable
family members to higher grounds, relative’s houses, or to the shelters. The cash for work modality had also helped the community people to obtain a source of income by working for the embankment, roads, bamboo bridges, etc. Shelter renovations and upgradations reportedly encouraged the community people to evacuate faster. The average amount of loan taken by a treatment respondent and control respondent was found to have been Taka 20,194 and Taka 18,335 respectively. However, post flood loan burden was significantly less for the cash grant recipients (only 32% took loan after flood) as compared to other treatment groups (more than 50% took loan). The
cash grants are said to have helped the recipients address their basic needs during the flood and also helped them to some extent to repair their house and pay for livestock treatment after the flood. [70 pages] Read More...

ASHAR Alo Project (Action for Supporting the Host Communities: Adaptation and Resilience)

ASHAR Alo (Action for Supporting the Host Communities: Adaptation and Resilience), meaning ‘Light of Hope’ in Bangla.
The project activities are focused on Jaliyapalong, Haldiapalang,Ratna Palong, PalongKhali union of Ukhiya Upzila and Dakshin Mithachari and Chakmarkul union of Ramu Upazila. CARE aims to strengthen host communities' resilience by enhancing community-based disaster risk reduction (DRR), upgrading infrastructure, and providing livelihoods opportunities across shelter, settlement, and WASH sectors. The project also responds to the urgent protection and gender-based violence needs in the host community. Activities are being undertaken in collaboration with government and community stakeholders and UN and NGO actors.
Cox’s Bazar is amongst the poorest districts of Bangladesh. In Ukhia, 33% of people live below the poverty line, and 17% below extreme poverty. This is linked to the region's poor land quality and high risk of natural disaster. Since the Myanmar refugee influx in the fall of 2017, over 902,984 refugees or 201,150 households (HH)s have settled in Ukhiya, and Teknaf.1 Despite limited resources, the local host community population welcomed the arriving refugees during the fall of 2017, sharing food, shelter, and supplies. However, the refugees’ extended presence has strained the community’s already scarce resources. Within the sub-region, Ukhia and Teknaf have been particularly affected, with 336,000 residents directly impacted by the refugee influx,2 leading to a deterioration of relations between these host community members and the refugees.
The region is highly prone to natural disasters; it experiences regular cyclones, floods, and landslides with triple global average precipitation3. Both individual homes and community shelters are weak and in disrepair. Over 40% of households do not meet Sphere standards; they are overcrowded, fragile and highly susceptible to damage and destruction by strong winds, rain, and flooding4. Land degradation, including the daily removal of over 700 metric tons of firewood from the area, has led to a loss of topsoil, coupled with the heightened risk of flash flooding, which has increased the potential destruction5. The accumulation of improperly disposed waste and poor pre-existing drainage systems aggravate these risks and increase the likelihood of damage to host communities6. Furthermore, community response plans and structures are ill-equipped to safeguard or offer substantive protection. [19 pages] Read More...


Globally, there are concerted efforts being directed towards reducing disaster risks particularly in developing countries where the vulnerability of people, their assets and livelihoods are increasing du to natural hazards. The international principle of common but differentiated responsibilities also sees different forms of support being channelled from the more developed countries to those less developed. In the Southern Africa Development Community (SADC) where Zimbabwe is domiciled, there is a rising trend of vulnerabilities to droughts, floods, storms, and epidemics among others. These hazards arbitrarily impose a heavy burden on majority of the poorer population, worsening their food insecurity, exposing many of them to gender-based violence, communicable diseases, reduced access to pertinent health services and compounded socio-economic setbacks. In that respect, Care International, Dan Church Aid and Plan International established a Rapid Response Management Unit (RRMU) to implement a comprehensive rapid response framework for rapid onset emergencies in seven (7) provinces in Zimbabwe from February 2020 to June 2021. The targeted provinces were Harare, Masvingo, Bulawayo, Midlands, Manicaland, Matabeleland South and Matabeleland North. Read More...

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