disaster risk reduction

Supporting flood Forecast-based Action and Learning (SUFAL) Project in the 2020 Monsoon Floods

Background: ‘Supporting flood Forecast-based Action and Learning’ (SUFAL) project was designed to contribute to reducing the adverse impacts of the increasing frequency of catastrophic flooding on the vulnerable and poor communities through Forecast-based Action (FbA). The project was funded by The Directorate-General for European Civil Protection and Humanitarian Aid Operations (ECHO) and was implemented through a consortium led by CARE Bangladesh, with Concern Worldwide, Islamic Relief and Regional Integrated Multi-Hazard Early Warning System for Africa and Asia (RIMES). The project was implemented in three northern districts of Bangladesh: Jamalpur, Gaibandha, and Kurigram. FbA contributed to disseminating Flood Early Warning messages with a lead time of 10 – 15 days with timely and accurate weather forecast information, while and it also helping to identify potential flooding areas.

Methodology: The primary purpose of the study was to “Evaluate the impact of early actions” applied through the SUFAL project on household and community beneficiaries in responding to the 2020 monsoon floods. Customized OECD-DAC criteria, Quasi-experimental design (Difference-in-Difference Method), Knowledge, Attitude and Practices (KAP) framework and Value for Money (VfM) framework were used as guiding methods and tools to design study instruments and evaluate the impact of early actions at every stakeholder level. The study covered a control group in non-project areas and three treatment groups in the project areas: Treatment group 1 (EWM support), Treatment group 2 (EWM + Evacuation + Shelter + WASH support), Treatment group 3 (EWM + Evacuation + Shelter + WASH + Cash-grant support). Treatment groups were categorized in three different groups to conduct cost-effectiveness analysis. The study areas were in the districts of Kurigram (Hatia, Begumganj, Buraburi, Shaheber Alga unions), Gaibandha (Bharatkhali, Saghata, Ghuridaha, Haldia unions) and Jamalpur (Kulkandi, Chinaduli, Noarpara, Shapdhor. The survey sample consisted of 224 control respondents (of which 153 were women) and 754 treatment respondents (of which 426 were women), among which Sample for treatment group 1, 2, and 3 were 293 (100 women), 292 (192 women) and 169 (134 women), respectively. A total of 118 of the 754 treatment households interviewed through the survey were women-headed households and 38 out of 224 control group households were women headed households. The team had conducted 7 FGDs with community members in the three implementation areas, and 27 KIIs with community volunteers, project staff, government officials, and other related NGOs.

Impact: It was found through the study that less people in treatment group experienced damages compared to control households, treatment households saved more resources in 2020 than control households, and the average monetary values of assets saved by treatment group in 2020 were higher compared to the control group households. Due to the drawn-out duration and intensity of the flood in 2020, respondents reported that they were not able to prevent more damages although they took more early actions. Besides, treatment areas were the most flood affected areas. The early messages had helped the community to prevent damage to their assets and livelihoods. The percentage of damage prevented in agricultural sector for the treatment group had increased to 28% since the flood of 2019. The damage prevented in fisheries had increased significantly by 18 percent in 2020 in compared to that of 2019. The death of family members from waterborne diseases had decreased (except female members) in comparison to the previous flood in 2019. It is quite evident that the early warning message had enabled the males to take early actions regarding relocation of the vulnerable
family members to higher grounds, relative’s houses, or to the shelters. The cash for work modality had also helped the community people to obtain a source of income by working for the embankment, roads, bamboo bridges, etc. Shelter renovations and upgradations reportedly encouraged the community people to evacuate faster. The average amount of loan taken by a treatment respondent and control respondent was found to have been Taka 20,194 and Taka 18,335 respectively. However, post flood loan burden was significantly less for the cash grant recipients (only 32% took loan after flood) as compared to other treatment groups (more than 50% took loan). The
cash grants are said to have helped the recipients address their basic needs during the flood and also helped them to some extent to repair their house and pay for livestock treatment after the flood. [70 pages] Read More...

ASHAR Alo Project (Action for Supporting the Host Communities: Adaptation and Resilience)

ASHAR Alo (Action for Supporting the Host Communities: Adaptation and Resilience), meaning ‘Light of Hope’ in Bangla.
The project activities are focused on Jaliyapalong, Haldiapalang,Ratna Palong, PalongKhali union of Ukhiya Upzila and Dakshin Mithachari and Chakmarkul union of Ramu Upazila. CARE aims to strengthen host communities' resilience by enhancing community-based disaster risk reduction (DRR), upgrading infrastructure, and providing livelihoods opportunities across shelter, settlement, and WASH sectors. The project also responds to the urgent protection and gender-based violence needs in the host community. Activities are being undertaken in collaboration with government and community stakeholders and UN and NGO actors.
Cox’s Bazar is amongst the poorest districts of Bangladesh. In Ukhia, 33% of people live below the poverty line, and 17% below extreme poverty. This is linked to the region's poor land quality and high risk of natural disaster. Since the Myanmar refugee influx in the fall of 2017, over 902,984 refugees or 201,150 households (HH)s have settled in Ukhiya, and Teknaf.1 Despite limited resources, the local host community population welcomed the arriving refugees during the fall of 2017, sharing food, shelter, and supplies. However, the refugees’ extended presence has strained the community’s already scarce resources. Within the sub-region, Ukhia and Teknaf have been particularly affected, with 336,000 residents directly impacted by the refugee influx,2 leading to a deterioration of relations between these host community members and the refugees.
The region is highly prone to natural disasters; it experiences regular cyclones, floods, and landslides with triple global average precipitation3. Both individual homes and community shelters are weak and in disrepair. Over 40% of households do not meet Sphere standards; they are overcrowded, fragile and highly susceptible to damage and destruction by strong winds, rain, and flooding4. Land degradation, including the daily removal of over 700 metric tons of firewood from the area, has led to a loss of topsoil, coupled with the heightened risk of flash flooding, which has increased the potential destruction5. The accumulation of improperly disposed waste and poor pre-existing drainage systems aggravate these risks and increase the likelihood of damage to host communities6. Furthermore, community response plans and structures are ill-equipped to safeguard or offer substantive protection. [19 pages] Read More...

THE ZIMBABWE DISASTER RAPID RESPONSE MECHANISM

Globally, there are concerted efforts being directed towards reducing disaster risks particularly in developing countries where the vulnerability of people, their assets and livelihoods are increasing du to natural hazards. The international principle of common but differentiated responsibilities also sees different forms of support being channelled from the more developed countries to those less developed. In the Southern Africa Development Community (SADC) where Zimbabwe is domiciled, there is a rising trend of vulnerabilities to droughts, floods, storms, and epidemics among others. These hazards arbitrarily impose a heavy burden on majority of the poorer population, worsening their food insecurity, exposing many of them to gender-based violence, communicable diseases, reduced access to pertinent health services and compounded socio-economic setbacks. In that respect, Care International, Dan Church Aid and Plan International established a Rapid Response Management Unit (RRMU) to implement a comprehensive rapid response framework for rapid onset emergencies in seven (7) provinces in Zimbabwe from February 2020 to June 2021. The targeted provinces were Harare, Masvingo, Bulawayo, Midlands, Manicaland, Matabeleland South and Matabeleland North. Read More...

Partners for Resilience Country Case Study Indonesia (PFR)

This is a report of the findings of the Indonesia Country study which is one of three country studies being prepared as an input to Evaluation of the PFR II programme. For ease of comparison and to facilitate the preparation of the overall report, this country report is structured according to the seven generic Evaluation Questions (and associated Judgement criteria and indicators) that inform this evaluation. In line with PFR 2 programme design, the overall objective of the Indonesia programme is to localise global agendas and commitments aimed at disaster management, climate change adaptation and working with an eco-system approach. It is recognised that each country faces unique challenges, has different institutional, capacity and resource opportunities/ limitations and have prioritised their responses to these global agenda and commitments in different ways. In this respect, contextualisation to local needs and circumstances is critical [87 pages]. Read More...

Emergency Response After Action Review for CARE Ghana’s Response to the 2019 Floods in Upper East Region Final Evaluation

Torrential rains in the Upper East region of Ghana occurred from the 2nd to the 15th of October 2019. The continuous rains led to flooding in all the fifteen (15) administrative districts/municipalities which resulted in the collapse of buildings, deaths and displacement of a sizeable percentage of the population . The most affected districts were; Builsa North, Kassena Nankana Municipal, Bongo, Kassena Nankana West, Builsa South, Tempane and Talensi .
CARE International in Ghana, collaborated with government agencies namely National Disaster Management Organization (NADMO), National Commission for Civic Education (NCCE), Ghana Health Service (GHS) and Information Service Department in the region to respond to the emergency. Key interventions implemented as part of the emergency response were the distribution of food and non-food relief items, cash disbursements, Covid-19 risk communication to victims in four worst affected districts. The districts are; Bongo, Talensi Builsa North and Kassena Nankana Municipal. The relief items included; rice, oil, gari, sugar, Winimix, maize, beans, fish aqua tabs, sanitary pads, buckets bar soap and cloth. Additionally, cash to the tune of GHC 814.00 per flood affected household was disbursed through mobile money system and physical distribution to a total of 700 flood victims across the four districts in three tranches. The cash transfers were meant to enable beneficiaries rebuild after the disaster [12 pages]. Read More...

Action for Supporting Host Community Adaptation & Resilience ASHAR Alo Yearly Review 2020

As a multi-year project, mid-term review/year-end assessment has been commissioned to assess relevancy of design, approach and methodology, implementation strategy, efficiency and effectiveness of actions, effects of actions on community people etc. This is an internal assessment to improve the project. The ASHAR Alo project targets host communities located outside of the refugee camps, consolidating programmatic gains through OFDA funding for sustainable development in the area. The project activities are focused on Jaliyapalong, and Palongkhali. CARE aims to strengthen host communities' resilience, by enhancing community-based disaster risk reduction (DRR), upgrading infrastructure and providing livelihoods opportunities, across shelter, settlement and WASH sectors. The project will also respond to the urgent protection and gender-based violence needs in the host community. Activities are being undertaken in collaboration with government and community stakeholders, as well as UN and NGO actors.

The assessment was conducted in September 2020 applying both quantitative and qualitative tools and approaches. The samples were drawn purposively. Considering the COVID-19 situation, the short sample size was determined following most common statistical formulae. Throughout the study, it follows USAID compliance and directives. It covers a total of 228 respondent’s households from 4 WARDs under Jaliyapalong Union in Ukhiya Upazailla, Cox’s Bazar district. Quantitative Data collection has been conducted with Tablets using KoBo. [41 pages].
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Lessons Learnt from CARE’s Shelter Responses to Cyclone Idai in Malawi, Mozambique and Zimbabwe

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Adaptación al cambio climático y reducción de riesgos de desastres por el retroceso de los glaciares en la Cordillera de los Andes (GLACIARES)

La evaluación final y perfil sociodemográfico y económico.

Documento 1: El proyecto “Glaciares 513: Adaptación al cambio climático y reducción de riesgos de desastres por el retroceso de los glaciares en la Cordillera de los Andes (2011 – 2015)” tiene como finalidad contribuir a mejorar la capacidad de adaptación integral y de reducción de riesgos por desastres frente al fenómeno de retroceso de glaciares en el Perú, particularmente en las regiones de Ancash y Cusco; siendo su implementación liderada por un consorcio integrado por CARE Perú y la Universidad de Zurich.El proyecto busca fortalecer las capacidades para el monitoreo e investigación de glaciares en el Perú, así como las capacidades técnico-operativas para traducir el conocimiento científico y brindarle a las comunidades aledañas a los glaciares información necesaria para su adaptación y la reducción de vulnerabilidades, todo ello contando con condiciones institucionales que garanticen la sostenibilidad de dichas acciones en el marco de la adaptación al cambio climático en el país, particularmente en las regiones de Ancash y Cusco. Esta propuesta implica que la intervención debe considerar la interacción entre ciencia y práctica, contando para ello con la participación de actores nacionales, regionales y locales, representantes del sector público, privado o sociedad civil; además del acompañamiento científico proporcionado por la universidad de Zurich.
El objetivo de la evaluación externa fue medir el avance de los resultados alcanzados y las perspectivas de desarrollar una segunda fase del mismo, para lo cual un grupo conformado por tres expertos (dos nacionales y uno internacional) analizaron la documentación relacionada al proyecto, efectuaron entrevistas individuales y grupales, además de participar en talleres de sistematización y evaluación.
Documento 2: This is a diagnosis about the social demographic and economic profile of three regions taken in 2018. This study provide information about characteristics of populations, geographic areas, etc. Read More...

Partners for Resilience: Annual Report 2019

Intended impact: Vulnerable people are more often resilient to crises in the face of climate change and environmental degradation, enabling sustainable inclusive economic growth.

Contents of report:
1 Progress on IRM dialogue trajectories
2A Reflection on capacity strengthening
2B Reflection on the Dialogue Capacity Framework
3. Progress on Knowledge Management & Learning
4. Gender
5. Collaboration with the Netherlands Embassy
6. Linking country, regional and global programmes
7 Assess ToC together, visualize progress towards the 2020 goal
8 Country corner
9 Significant change
10 Indicators
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Where the Rain Falls Phase III (2017 – 2019): Final Evaluation Report

In 2009, the Where the Rain Falls (WtRF) initiative started as a three-year research project investigating the impact of rainfall variability on food and livelihood security, and migration.

This research culminated in a global policy report (2012) and the development of more action-oriented community-based adaptation (CBA) pilot projects in each India, Thailand and Bangladesh. A second phase (2014 – 2016), and later a third phase (2017 – 2019), aimed to scale results, impacts and lessons learned to date for broader support for, and uptake of, CBA methods and approaches.

In October 2019, CARE France engaged an International Consultant to lead WtRF’ first multi-county evaluation. As per the Terms of Reference (TORs) for this evaluation (see Annex IV) the main objectives of the evaluation are two-fold:
(i) to assess the degree of achievement of the WtRF global and specific objectives in India and Thailand respectively; and
(ii) to extract common and/or comparable lessons learned about factors contributing to and hindering achievements (e.g. barriers and enablers) Read More...

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