Endline Report

Mastercard Impact Fund and CARE Global Partnership: Ignite Program Endline Results Report

From December 2019 through May 2023, the Ignite project, supported by the Mastercard Center for Inclusive Growth, was implemented by CARE in Vietnam, Pakistan and Peru where there are large segments of unserved micro and small enterprises ready for investment. The project was intended to increase financial security and resilience and grow the businesses of underserved micro-entrepreneurs, specifically those MSEs with between 2-10 employees, who have been in business for 2+ years. To achieve the above goal, the Ignite program envisioned a series of interventions to achieve intermediate outcomes, including improved ability to intentionally serve this segment from FSPs, business growth, financial sustainability, financial product performance, job creation and retention, financial resilience and enhanced digital literacy.
Impact level indicators include increase in household income and financial resilience. Both of the impact indicators have shown positive movements illustrating that the project has created a positive change. There are different degrees of change in different countries.
Percentage of strivers who reported an increase in household income showed impact across all three countries.
• Vietnam almost doubled the total number of households who increased income between baseline and endline (44% at baseline; 87% at endline), an increase of 43 percentage points.
• In Pakistan the number went up by 16 times (3% at baseline; 51% at endline).
• In Peru a total of 33% of the households reported an increase in their household income at the end of the project.
Percentage of strivers’ financial resilience also showed improvement.
• Vietnam recorded 43 percentage points improvement between baseline and endline (67% at baseline; 96% at endline).
• Peru showed 26 percentage points growth between baseline and endline (42% at baseline; 53% at endline).
•No comparable data for this indicator was found from Pakistan. Read More...

Endline Report: Maman Lumière III Project Project / Etude Endline: Projet Maman Lumière III

In response to the major findings and to help achieve the objectives of the State's Economic and Social Development Plan (PDES°), CARE in Niger has negotiated the third phase of the "Projet Maman Lumière III" project, whose interventions aim to break the cycle of malnutrition, particularly in contexts of recurring crises. Financed in January 2020 by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Kingdom of Luxembourg for a period of 48 months, the objective assigned to this project is to contribute to a substantial and sustainable reduction in malnutrition among children under 2 and women aged 15-49 in poor households in the Zinder region by December 2023. At the end of four years of project implementation, and in accordance with contractual requirements with the donor, a final evaluation is carried out to assess the performance, quality of activities carried out, results and sustainability of the project.

The methodology used for this study is based on a sample survey with two (2) sampling levels. It targets children under 5 and their mothers. In addition to quantitative data, focus groups were held to gather qualitative data from communities and groups. In all, 412 households were surveyed in 21 villages by 3 teams.
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Pour faire face à des constats majeurs et contribuer ainsi à l’atteinte des objectifs du Plan de Développement Economique et Social de l’Etat(PDES°), CARE au Niger a négocié la troisième phase du projet « Projet Maman Lumière III » dont les interventions visent à briser le cycle de la malnutrition, en particulier dans des contextes de crises récurrentes. Financé en janvier 2020 par le Ministère des Affaires Etrangères du Royaume de Luxembourg pour une durée de 48 mois, l’objectif assigné à ce projet est de contribuer à une réduction substantielle et durable de la malnutrition des enfants de moins de 2 ans et des femmes 15-49 ans des ménages pauvres de la région de Zinder d’ici décembre 2023. En effet à l’issue de quatre ans de mise en œuvre du projet et conforment aux exigences contractuelles avec le bailleur une évaluation finale est conduite pour apprécier la performance, la qualité des activités réalisées, les résultats et la durabilité du projet.

Ainsi la méthodologie utilisée pour cette étude est basée sur une enquête par sondage à deux (2) degrés d’échantillonnage. Elle cible les enfants de moins de 5 ans et leurs mères. Au-delà des données quantitatives, des focus groupes ont été animés pour recueillir de données qualitatives auprès des communautés et groupements. Au total, 412 ménages ont été enquêtés dans 21 villages par 3 équipes.
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Unlocking the Potential of Women-led Micro & Small Enterprises: Lessons from Pakistan, Peru, and Vietnam

Micro and small enterprises (MSEs) are the economic backbone of most economies worldwide, increasing employment and reinvesting in local communities. In emerging markets, there are 365-445 million micro, small, and medium enterprises. However, 80% of women-owned small businesses with credit needs are either unserved or underserved, representing a $1.7 trillion USD financing gap.

CARE’s Ignite program, launched in partnership with the Mastercard Center for Inclusive Growth, focused on supporting micro and small enterprises, especially those led by women, in Pakistan, Peru, and Vietnam
between 2020 and 2023.

Ignite took a market-based approach to service delivery that was sustainable and scalable by working with over 35 local partners across the three countries, 11 of which were core service delivery partners. These partnerships opened up much-needed access to financial and digital resources, while building entrepreneurs’ business capacity and networks.

Ignite set out to reach 3.9 million entrepreneurs in three years with $5.26 million USD in grant funding from Mastercard. The program exceeded initial goals, reaching more than nine million entrepreneurs, and unlocking access to $154.9 million USD in loans. More than 150,000 entrepreneurs were deeply supported with loans, critical support services, and training.

The commercial value in supporting women-led MSEs is irrefutable. Global data continues to show this and,
together with Ignite financial service provider partners, CARE has proved it. Despite this, gender bias continues to permeate throughout financial institutions the world over. CARE is calling on all financial service providers to read the proof in this report that women are better financial clients, to support the drive for 100% financial inclusion for women, and to invest in reaching this goal. Read More...

EDUCATION SECTOR PROGRAM IMPLEMENTATION GRANT (ESPIG) Endline Report

Global evidence has shown that the type and quality of education can either fuel marginalization, alienation, poverty and vulnerability of children and young people or strengthen societal resilience. After the fall of the state in 1991 and the outbreak of conflict, the education system in Somalia remains fragmented and underfunded – with only 0.25 percent of Somalia’s GDP invested in the education system. Significant barriers to accessing quality education in Somalia include minimal capacity to provide in-teacher training; insufficient salaries for educators; high student to teacher ratio; low ratio of textbooks to students; inadequate school infrastructure (e.g., gender appropriate WASH facilities or access to electricity); marginalization of pastoralist communities and minority clans; and an inability to appropriately accommodate students with disabilities.
In response the Ministry of Education, Culture and Higher Education (MOECHE) of the Government of Somalia and CARE have implemented the Education Sector Program Implementation Grant (ESPIG) funded by the Global Partnership for Education (GPE). Aligned with the Federal Government of Somalia’s Education Sector Plan 2018-2020 (ESSP), the overall objective of ESPIG is to increase access to quality education for out of school children; enhance the quality of primary education; and improve the capacity of the Ministries of Education (MOEs) at the Federal Member State (FMS) and district level to regulate and better manage the education sector.
This endline evaluation aimed to assess the extent to which the stated objectives and ESPIG components were achieved (or not) during the course of the project. This study also aimed to identify and explore the factors affecting the achievement of the ESPIG outcomes. For instance, it sought to identify factors affecting access to primary education, as well as the quality of teaching. The findings and recommendations aim to inform adaptations to future GPE investments in system strengthening in Somalia as well as the proposed methodology for their implementation. Read More...

Integrated Health, WASH and FSL Assistance to Conflict-affected, Displaced, and Vulnerable Households in Amran governorate, Yemen

CARE Yemen has completed implementing CDCS-supported “Integrated Health, WASH and FSL Assistance to conflict-affected, displaced and vulnerable households in Amran governorate, Yemen”. The purpose of this program is to improve health, WASH, food security, livelihoods, and wellbeing for IDPs and vulnerable host communities in Amran Governorate in Yemen.

To set benchmark values for the outcome level indicators and to measure the success of the project in achieving its goals and objectives, a baseline and endline surveys was conducted in the project’s operational targeted areas. The endline survey was conducted with samples of targeted beneficiary households living in Raydah district of Amran Governorate in August 2023. The survey mainly used quantitative methodology (i.e., household survey) to collect pertinent data.

Here are the key survey outcomes:
1. Coping Strategy Index: The average CSI score for the surveyed HHs 9.96 (male: 10.03, female: 9.85), which is indicating that participants are relatively experiencing significant resilience and recovering from using negative food coping strategies.
Food Consumption Score: The average FCS for the targeted HHs is 54.65 (male: 54.81, female: 54.41). In addition, 89.93% are in acceptable food consumption.

2. Household Dietary Diversity Score: The average HDDS for the targeted household is 6.7 which indicated that surveyed HHs is somehow adequate dietary diversity. This denotes a good medium quality of diet whereby households consume an average of around 7 food groups out of the recommended twelve food groups.

3. HHS (Household Hunger Scale): The analysis of the endline data shows that only 2.16% of households faced moderate hunger; whereas 0.0% of households faced severe hunger during the survey time.

4. Access to safe water: about 74.3% of interviewees (male: 78.6%, female: 64.3%) mentioned to have access to safe water from protected water sources such as piped water system and protected wells.

5. Time taken to collect water: Majority of respondents 91.4% replied that the water is “Available inside the house” from the primary source which have been rehabilitated by CARE.

6. Practice of water treatment: 84.3% of respondents (male: 89.8%, female: 71.4%) mentioned treating water before drinking mainly using respectively the techniques of boiling, treated from pipeline, filters, Aqua-tabs, and Chlorine.

7. Availability of household latrines: The majority 98.6% of respondents (male: 98.0%, female: 100.0%) mentioned that they do have household latrines.

8. Practice of handwashing: approximately 87.9% of respondents (male: 86.7%, female: 90.5%) wash their hands at least three out of five critical times of hand washing.
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WASH lifesaving assistance and protection services to the conflict affected IDPs and host communities in selected districts of Taiz governorate of Yemen

CARE Yemen is currently implementing ‘WASH lifesaving assistance and protection services to the conflict affected IDPs and host communities in selected districts of Taiz governorate of Yemen.

The principal objective of the project is ‘Rural and urban communities affected by the ongoing conflict and disaster have received life-saving assistance (for immediate needs) and improved foundation to their sustainable livelihood and resilience whereas the specific objective of the project is ‘Targeted IDP and host community households have improved access to comprehensive WASH and Protection services strengthening their resilience.

The project’s key results are:
• Result (1) Conflict affected households have enhanced access to safe water and improved hygiene practices through comprehensive WASH assistance.
• Result (2) Improved access of the most at-risk women, men, girls and boys to critical information and specialized protection services for their protection.

In order to measure the success of the project in achieving its goals and objectives, a baseline survey was conducted 396 households’ visits in Al Mudhaffar, AlQahirah, Salh and Al Maafer Districts of Taiz Governorate, this endline report can provide a critical reference point for assessing changes and impact, as it establishes a basis for comparing the situation before and after an intervention.
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Proyecto Máxima Perú: Rompiendo barreras, construyendo negocios

El proyecto “Máxima: Rompiendo barreras, construyendo negocios”, es desarrollado con el apoyo de Fundación Citi y tiene como objetivo que las poblaciones refugiada y migrante venezolana, quechua hablante, amazónica y afroperuana (así como migrantes de estos tres grupos) de zonas rurales y periurbanas de Lima, Ica, Huancavelica, San Martín y otras regiones del Perú, tomen mejores decisiones financieras para optimizar sus emprendimientos y economía familiar, considerando las barreras de género y culturales. Además, busca formar y/o fortalecer liderazgos en habilidades digitales, habilidades blandas e igualdad de género.

El proyecto Máxima tiene 2 componentes:
- Programa de capacitación en educación financiera y empresarial en español y en quechua para fortalecimiento de las competencias financieras.
- Acceso a información sobre productos financieros (ahorro, crédito, seguros, billeteras digitales) a través de campañas informativas de Inclusión Financiera en español y en quechua.

A través de estas acciones, el proyecto Máxima tuvo como meta atender a 3,500 personas con diferentes perfiles emprendedores: ideas de negocio, nuevo negocio y negocios en crecimiento. Al menos el 75% serían mujeres. Read More...

Savings and Credit Groups for Food Security and Ecosystem Sustainability in Tanzania: Endline Evaluation

The "Savings and Credit Group for Food Security and Ecosystem Sustainability (SGFSES) in Tanzania" was a CARE-WWF Alliance’s project implemented in Southern Agricultural Growth Corridor of Tanzania (SAGCOT), focusing on the Great Ruaha River region. The initiative aimed to address climate vulnerabilities, improve livelihoods, and enhance ecosystem services. Among other interventions, the project promoted sustainable production of Irish potatoes and common beans, crucial for community livelihoods, but vulnerable to climate shocks. Challenges such as water and land shortages, deforestation, and weak governance had affected productivity and adaptation options.

Implemented from June 2021 to December 2023 in Iringa and Mufindi Districts, the project targeted 21 villages. Its primary goal was to enhance the household income of 5,000 farming families, particularly empowering women, directly impacting 22,500 individuals and indirectly benefiting at least 50,000 individuals within the Great Ruaha watershed.

The project employed traditional approaches like Village Savings and Loan Associations (VSLA), Farmer Field and Business Schools (FFBS), and Community-Based Natural Resource Management (CBNRM), along with Integrated Land and Water Resource Management (ILWM) integrating income-generating and market-engagement strategies with natural resource management and sustainable agriculture practices so that both communities and ecosystems thrive.

The endline evaluation utilizing OECD criteria to assess the relevance, coherence, effectiveness, efficiency, impact, and sustainability of the project. It measured the achievements of this integrated conservation and development compared to the baseline three years earlier.
The endline evaluation found that the project surpassed its targets, reaching 7,029 households (51% female-headed) with a total of 10,961 direct beneficiaries (55% women, 34% youth) across all 21 project villages. In another words, the project impacted directly 33,739 individuals from 7,029 households. This represents 141% of the target set by the project at its beginning. Findings from FGDs and KIIs, showed that the project improved well-being of these communities by enhancing equal opportunities for men, women, and youth. The project enhanced meeting of basic needs such as food, housing, clothing, health services, and education expenses.

They participants increased productivity of staple crops like maize, common beans, sunflower, and Irish potatoes which notably contributed to reliable food sources and increased income for the communities. These crops served for both food and income. The endline survey found that the average productivity of the common bean increased from 331.3 kg acre-1 to 633 kg acre-1 which is an increase of 91% compared to the baseline. This achievement surpasses the LOP target of 30% increment by 61%. Furthermore, the average productivity of Irish potato increased from 1,435.5 kg acre-1 to 7,500 kg acre-1, which is 423% of the baseline or 393% of the LOP target of 30% increase.

The average number of months that surveyed households were able to provide sufficient food to their families was 7.4 at endline, up from 4.0 months at baseline. This is an increase of 85% from the baseline. The achievement surpasses the Life of Project goal of a 20% increase by 65%. On average, 83% of households experience adequate food provisioning during the crop-harvesting period (May to November), 42% experience hunger during the planting and crop growing season (December to April). 83% of the surveyed households report consuming three meals a day for most of the year, 86% of respondents were not worried about facing food shortages throughout the year. For those households that do not have adequate food provisions throughout the year, they tend to reduce their meals to two a day between December and April. Communities regard having two meals a day during the lean period as an improvement, as food was sometimes insufficient for one meal among some families in the past.

The endline evaluation drawn lessons learned that emerged from the data are:
- The implementation of VSLAs have helped the village land use committee, village environmental committee members and village council leaders to get into engagement with conservation activities.
- The Alliance-promoted VSLA-based AMCOS model has several benefits: in addition to attracting farmers with its core collective marketing promise, the requirement that all AMCOS members should also be VSLA members both accelerated VSLA group formation and enhances trust in leaders, a critical component of successful AMCOS.
- The planting to avocado trees, being one of potential trees for income generation and conservation of natural resources comes with a number of challenges. The first is it high water usage especially at the early stages of growth. The fruit tree have attracted large investors, who have been seen to open up large farms in forested lands. This has the risk of causing deforestation and drought in the near future, as the virgin land is turned into production land.
- The Alliance-piloted CSI model holds significant promise: Collective Investment trainings have not only supported VSLA groups in investing together but also have supported the individual members in starting their enterprises.
- VSLA members are confident to speak out on the enterprises which are destructive to environment in front of other members compared to period before the CSI training.
- VSLA members can see the benefits of individual and group investments that are made.
- Women have been in front line in undertaking collective investments activities at a group and individual level, which has resulted into family stability and reduced GBV issues as they also have something to contribute to their families. Read More...

Hunga Tonga- Hunga Ha’apai Disaster Response Program End of Program Evaluation Evaluation Report

This Evaluation Report presents the end of program evaluation (the evaluation) of the Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha’apai Disaster Response Program (the program), implemented in partnership by CARE Australia, MORDI TT and Talitha Project (the partnership). The evaluation was conducted between July- November 2023 by Iris Low and Leaine Robinson (Collaborate Consulting Pte. Ltd (CoLAB)); Katrina Fatiaki (Tapuaki Mei Langi Consultancy) and Dr. Rev. 'Ungatea Kata and Ofa Pakalani (Tupou Tertiary Institute). The evaluation focused on evaluating the merit and worth of the program implemented by the partners by identifying the achievements of the program, strengths of the partnership modality to build on, and lessons to inform and improve future humanitarian programming.

Based on what stakeholders define as high quality humanitarian response, the evaluation finds that majority of communities, staff, and stakeholders interviewed stated that the assistance provided by CARE, MORDI TT and Talitha Project represents a high-quality humanitarian response as it met affected communities immediate needs (water, agriculture, hygiene kits), reached those in the community who needed assistance the most, was led by local organisations who coordinated and worked with existing national processes and systems in Tonga and who will continue to remain engaged in communities post-disaster to support communities to recover.
Impact: What difference did the program make?
The program has made an impact and positive difference to affected communities in helping to address their immediate needs and quality of living and recovery in the aftermath of the volcano and tsunami disaster. The targeted assistance has contributed to communities improved access to clean drinking water and their knowledge and skills on how to maintain Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) infrastructure; enhanced food security in communities through more options for healthy eating from the community gardens, helping communities to recover quickly, and increased livelihoods for women who sell the surplus produce; motivated communities to work together so that they are better prepared for future disasters and supported different groups (women, young people, adolescent girls, elderly and persons with disabilities) in the community. The program reached 20,182 people (5,593 women; 4,524 girls; 5,149 men and 4,916 boys) across the affected areas of Tongatapu, ‘Eua and Ha’apai, with material and technical support to restore community rainwater collection systems, a significant impact in the aftermath of the disaster which left communities without access to clean drinking water. Read More...

SHOUHARDO III Performance and Impact evaluation

This report evaluates the performance of the SHOUHARDO III project, which targets poor households in the char and haor (wetland) areas of Bangladesh and aims to address food and income insecurity, maternal and child health and nutrition, women’s and youth empowerment, as well as improve access to public services while building resilience capacities. This evaluation employs three methodologies: qualitative inquiry, pre-post comparison, and impact evaluation. The impact evaluation matches communities treated by SHOUHARDO III with untreated communities ex-post, using baseline stunting rates from the 2014 DHS dataset. The evaluation finds that the SHOUHARDO III project engaged more than 40% of households surveyed within target villages and successfully targeted poor and female-headed households. The analysis of baseline and endline statuses (pre-post analysis) of households in the SHOUHARDO III-targeted areas demonstrates that households from these areas improved across several indicators, including poverty levels, the nutritional status of women and children, women’s empowerment, and gender equity. From a qualitative standpoint, participants from areas where SHOUHARDO III appeared well-implemented offers insights into the potential of the interventions. The qualitative evaluation found mechanisms of change in several areas that can be built upon and enhanced. Qualitative findings show that the program succeeded in promoting multi-sectoral change at household and community levels. They also show that SHOUHARDO III effectively targeted services to the most food-insecure, Poor and Extremely Poor members of communities, and its multi-generational and gender-inclusive approach to its interventions facilitated community acceptance. From the impact evaluation, it is likely that we can credit SHOUHARDO III with improvements in women’s dietary diversity, women and children’s minimum acceptable diet, antenatal care access, and the increase in participation across several sectors. In addition, households in SHOUHARDO III villages experienced statistically significant differences in one resilience indicator, and households in program villages that experienced major shocks were better able to maintain their food consumption than similar households in comparison villages. However, the impact evaluation does not find meaningful differences between households in targeted communities and households in non-targeted communities in terms of women’s mobility and decision-making, children’s nutritional status (including child stunting and underweight status), children’s diarrhea, exclusive breastfeeding, household hunger, and improved use of health and nutrition services overall. Improvements in mostmeasured conditions in the SHOUHARDO III program areas appear to have been matched by similar improvements in non-program areas, suggesting broader forces may account for them. Ultimately understanding differences between program areas and non-program areas can help inform decisions about future chapters of the SHOUHARDO III program and other development food security programs to ensure the most effective programs for vulnerable populations. Understanding the dynamics and mechanisms of change and responses of participants to interventions can also inform future work. Salient findings are also important to highlight for action. The research team concludes this report with recommendations. Read More...

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