Endline Report

WOMEN LEAD IN EMERGENCIES Global Learning Evaluation Report

CARE’s Women Lead in Emergencies (Women Lead) model has been developed to operationalise CARE’s commitment to women’s leadership as one of our four focal areas for Gender in Emergencies.1 Women Lead supports women within communities at the frontline of conflict, natural and climate-related hazards, pandemics and other crises to claim their right to a say over the issues that affect them, and to participate in emergency preparedness, response and recovery.
The Women Lead model looks to address fundamental gaps in humanitarian response that result in the exclusion of women from meaningful participation and leadership in the decisions that affect their lives.

Since 2018, CARE has piloted Women Lead in 15 locations in Colombia, Mali, Niger, the Philippines, Tonga and Uganda. In 2020, Women Lead worked directly with 804 women’s groups. Through piloting this approach in diverse locations and within different types of humanitarian crisis, Women Lead has sought to understand challenges, barriers and enablers regarding this kind of programming in different contexts.
Women’s confidence, knowledge and self-efficacy: The evaluation identifies considerable qualitative evidence of increases in confidence, knowledge and capacities. Participants identified the Women Lead model as being relevant to their needs and accessible to them. We can see evidence of women identifying Women Lead as an important enabler of collective action – supporting women to raise their voice, advocate for their needs and engage more effectively with stakeholders. Quantitative surveys support these findings. In Niger, 88% of Women Lead participants feel confident in their knowledge of their rights compared with 58% of non-participants. In Uganda, 58% of Women Lead participants reported ‘confidence in accessing services’ compared with 40% of non-participant women who said the same.
2. Women’s presence and meaningful participation in decision-making: The evaluation finds that Women Lead increases women’s presence, regularity of attendance, and meaningful and effective participation in decision-making community settings. In Niger, 91% of women who participated in Women Lead had attended formal community meetings and almost 60% said they had attended these meetings regularly compared with only 34% of non-Women Lead participants. This had occurred despite men in the community previously challenging women’s presence at these meetings. The Women Lead model appears to normalise women’s presence in decision-making spaces, and we see some evidence of women forming their own decision-making forums and creating opportunities for themselves to make decisions, take action or hold leaders to account. In Uganda, the South Sudanese Refugee Women’s Association has formally registered to become the first recognised women's community-based organisation in Omugo settlement. We also see the incorporation of Women Lead groups in Colombia, where groups have formally registered and started to offer services to other women.
3. Women’s informal and formal leadership: We see strong evidence of women feeling empowered to take up leadership positions within their community, both formally and informally. In Niger, women are significantly more likely to be leaders in their communities than non-participants (31% of Women Lead participants compared with 9% of non-participants). In Uganda, 22% of Women Lead participants hold leadership positions in their communities compared with 14% of non-participants. In Colombia, for which we have pre- and post-comparison data available for this indicator, before Women Lead 21% of members held leadership positions within their community. This had increased to 40% by the time of this evaluation. However, there is scope to enhance this work further and for there to be more consistent promotion of women’s leadership through work around political representation, leadership style and horizontal/inclusive decision-making processes.
September 2022 – Global Evaluation Report vii
4. Women take collective action: The Women Lead approach both helps empower women and serves to address complex barriers to their meaningful participation. Women Lead action plans are a useful tool to mobilise women for collective action to advocate for women’s needs and wants, organise peer support and solidarity activities, and improve their communities by engaging power-holders. Action has also frequently been taken to tackle the preconditions for participation and, in the action plans available for analysis, 42% of actions related to livelihood and income generation. This highlights the importance of women being free to prioritise according to their needs, to ensure they can tackle the preconditions of participation where necessary. We can also see clear qualitative evidence of women taking collective action to make change within their communities. This includes:
• Influencing humanitarian actors and local authorities to address the needs of women and the community: In Uganda, group members successfully advocated for humanitarian response actors to move the food distribution site closer.
• Advocating to address an injustice: In Niger, women had difficulty accessing maternity services owing to high costs. The Women Lead groups advocated to the district medical officer and the head of the hospital – and achieved a considerable reduction in the cost of accessing hospital services.
• Connecting and complementing community actors: In Uganda, Women Lead groups took a lead in addressing community tensions. For instance, when there were tensions around access to land and firewood, women worked with leaders from different communities to put in place agreements on the use of natural resources.
• Direct delivery and problem-solving: We see examples of women working to respond directly to the needs of their peers. In the Read More...

Impact of Tipping Point Initiative, a social norms intervention, in addressing child marriage and other adolescent health and behavioral outcomes in a northern district of Bangladesh

Child Marriage (CM) is a violation of human rights and it bears negative implications on the lives and well-being of girls. The global rate of CM before age 18 is 40% and before age 15 it is 12%. The adverse impact of CM on girls’ physical and mental health and development has been well documented. The literature presents multiple factors associated with CM, among which social norms features as an important one contributing to and perpetuating CM. Read More...

Findings from Kapilvastu and Rupandehi Districts, Nepal, 2019–2022

Girl child, early, and forced marriage (CEFM) persists in South Asia, with long-term effects on health and well-being. CARE’s Tipping Point Initiative (TPI) was designed to address the underlying causes of CEFM by challenging repressive gender norms and inequalities. The TPI engages different participant groups on programmatic topics and supports community dialogue to build girls’ agency, shift inequitable power relations, and change community norms sustaining CEFM. Read More...

WOMEN IN FACTORIES ADVANCED TRAINING CENTRAL AMERICA ENDLINE REPORT

Women in Factories (WIF) is an initiative of the Walmart Foundation’s Women’s Economic Empowerment (WEE) Program.
• The Advanced Training curriculum was developed by CARE International.
• The AT course requires 100 hours of training.
• There are 5 main training units.
• Topics include health and nutrition; functional literacy and personal finance; communication; gender, social status and relationships; and leadership.
• The WIF Advanced Training was introduced in Honduras and El Salvador in 2013. Read More...

WOMEN IN FACTORIES FOUNDATIONAL TRAINING CENTRAL AMERICA ENDLINE REPORT

Women in Factories (WIF) is an initiative of the Walmart Foundation’s Women’s Economic Empowerment (WEE) Program.
• The Foundational Training curriculum was developed by CARE International.
• The FT course requires 15 hours of training.
• There are 7 modules covering communication, managing work and career, gender awareness, personal hygiene, and reproductive health.
• The WIF Foundational Training was introduced in Honduras and El Salvador in 2013.
• The Walmart Foundation’s delivery partner in Central America was World Vision. Read More...

WOMEN IN FACTORIES ADVANCED TRAINING SOUTH ASIA ENDLINE REPORT

Women in Factories (WIF) is an initiative of the Walmart Foundation’s Women’s Economic Empowerment (WEE) Program:
• The Advanced Training curriculum was developed by CARE International.
• The AT course requires 99 hours of training.
• There are 5 main training units.
• Topics include health and nutrition; functional literacy and personal finance; communication; gender, social status and relationships; and leadership.
• The WIF Advanced Training was introduced in India and Bangladesh in 2012.
• The Walmart Foundation’s delivery partners are CARE in Bangladesh and Swasti in India. Read More...

WOMEN IN FACTORIES FOUNDATIONAL TRAINING SOUTH ASIA ENDLINE REPORT

Women in Factories (WIF) is an initiative of the Walmart Foundation’s Women’s Economic Empowerment (WEE) Program:

The Foundational Training curriculum was developed by CARE International.

The FT course requires 9 hours of training.

There are 7 modules covering communication, managing work and career, gender awareness, personal hygiene, and reproductive health.

The WIF Foundational Training was introduced in India and Bangladesh in 2012.

The Walmart Foundation’s delivery partners are CARE in Bangladesh and Swasti in India.
Read More...

Strengthening the Economic Resilience of Female Garment Workers during COVID-19 – Phase 2

This is the End of Project Evaluation Report for the Strengthening the Economic Resilience of Female Garment Workers during COVID19 – Phase 2 (SER) Project which was implemented in Phnom Penh, Kandal and Kampong Speu provinces. The Project commenced in July 2021 and concluded in February 2022. The goal of the project was to strengthen the economic resilience of female garment workers who are socially and economically marginalized in Cambodia to cope with the negative impacts of COVID-19. In order to conduct the evaluation, data was collected through a comprehensive literature review and fieldwork. The literature review was conducted reviewing reports and documents from the SER Project and also other relevant external publications. The evaluation interviewed 400 people and was conducted in January 2022. Read More...

End line assessment of GSK supported Community Health workers (CHW) initiative in Sunamganj district, Bangladesh

In spite of improvement in maternal and child health, the Sylhet division continues to have the poorest indicators in Bangladesh. Higher mortality for both mother and child and poor utilization of healthcare services still exist in the Sylhet division. Sunamganj is one of the remotest areas in Bangladesh and belongs to the Sylhet division having the poorest maternal and child health status. Since December 2012, CARE Bangladesh together with GSK and other key stakeholders has been implementing a Community Health Workers (CHWs) Initiative, which aims to address the lack of skilled human resources in remote and underserved unions of Sunamganj district. The overall goal of the CHW initiative is to improve maternal and child health outcomes in underserved/remote and poor communities of Bangladesh by increasing their access to quality health care services. Through a unique model of Public-Private Partnership (PPP), the project developed 319 Private CSBAs who are providing maternal and child health services including primary treatment of Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs) like diabetes and hypertension in the entire Sunamganj district. To do a robust measurement in terms of assessing maternal, neonatal and child health (MNCH) related knowledge and practices as well as documentation of learning of these innovative initiatives, icddr,b conducted a baseline study in 2012 and end-line assessment in 2018. Read More...

Endline Report: An interim analysis of baseline and endline data for key indicators

TAMANI is a complex intervention for improving maternal and newborn health in Tabora, Tanzania. The overarching objective of this intervention is to address the challenges linked to (1) the decision to seek care, (2) the barriers to accessing care, and (3) the provision of the highest possible quality of care, collectively known as the “three delays”. Addressing these delays requires a complex set of changes in behaviors, attitudes, access to and use of resources, skills, and knowledge of clients and service providers. The intervention targeted the supply side by improving the quality of care at health facilities, and the demand side through programs to increase utilization of care through community engagement and addressing gender barriers to accessing care by women and their families. Read More...

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