Emergency|Humanitarian Aid

Provision of lifesaving and sustainable WASH services for Vulnerable Populations in South Darfur and South Kordofan states, and emergency WASH services to Tigray refugees in Gedarif State Baseline

This baseline survey was conducted internally by CARE staff, led by the MEAL coordinator. The main objective is to collect information on the project's indicators and to provide baseline data generated for the intervention areas in South Darfur and South Kordofan States. The baseline data was collected in SD using both quantitative and qualitative methods. In SK, the project used endline data from the recently ended ECHO project as a baseline, as that dataset covers the same areas and same indicators. The data collection and consultation involved 253 individuals (118 females, 135 males). 123 people were consulted in SD (34 females, 89 males) while 130 were consulted in SK (84 females, 46 males).
All consulted households have no water inside houses, and they have to go to collect water from external sources. The distance to water sources varies between communities, and takes considerable time they spend fetching water. Most of households confirmed they collect more than 5 Jerri Cans of water per day, but this is not available all year. This water is not only for human consumption and use; they use it also for animal consumption and irrigating trees.
There are many problems in water sources affecting participants' access to safe water. The top rated problems are the high cost of water, continuous breakdown of water points, congested water sources, and far distance to the sources.
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Impact Evaluation of the Integrated Humanitarian Assistance Project that aiming to Reduce the Secondary Impacts of COVID-19 on the Most Vulnerable Populations in South and East Darfur

The evaluation intended to assess integrated WASH, health, nutrition, and multipurpose cash assistance (MPCA) programs. The evaluation conducted to answer questions related to quality and relevance of the project design, its activities and objectives in addressing the priority issues. This is in addition to assessment of project efficiency and to what extent the project resources have been used economically and in a timely manner. Moreover, the evaluation assessed the effectiveness and major achievements of the project to date. The evaluation also assessed the project impact and to what extent the project contributed to provision of sustainable, adequate, and lifesaving WASH, Health and Nutrition services to the targeted communities. This beside Identification of which positive outcomes that likely to continue after the project ends in addition to assessment of bottlenecks, opportunities and lessons learned to inform future planning.
Based on the desk review of available data, the evaluation was deploying different approaches to ensure rich data and triangulation of findings. These approaches were combining qualitative and quantitative methods to maximize validity and reliability. The main methods of data collection used were interviews with the primary stakeholders, observation, asking questions, review of documents and transect walking at sites. Different tools for data collections were used as well that included focus group discussions with different target groups, and observation check list, Key Informant Interview, questionnaire, asking open and closed questions with beneficiaries at water points and at health and nutrition centers.
The project is in line with national and State WASH plans. It was also found that, the project followed and complied with SMoH specifications and guidelines. The comprehensive community consultation indicated that all project activities, technology adopted, and outputs are quite relevant to the target communities and their actual needs and also appropriate for the selected areas. Generally, the evaluation team concluded that, the planned activities were completed with same allocated initial budget. Despite difficulties and challenges in the SLA areas and at sites located in territories between the government and SLA areas the evaluation team believes that, the project is efficient in terms of implementation of the planned activities and management of resources. Read More...

Comprehensive Multisector Need Assessment South Kordofan State

The overall objective of need assessment is to assess the current situation, identify the gaps and needs of the targeted communities and recommend of key interventions that meet the real needs of the targeted people. The data was collected in four sectors:
➢ Food Security and Livelihoods (FSL): Covers the issues that relate to, and affect the livelihood of the targeted people, including the sources of income, capacity of people, opportunities, with giving special consideration to agriculture and animal resources as they are the main activities in the targeted areas.
➢ WASH: Hygiene promotion/awareness and hand washing practices, access to dignified, safe, clean and functional excreta disposal facilities, sufficient and safe water for domestic use, particularly in the targeted locations.
➢ Health and Nutrition: Situation and gaps in health services including public and maternity health. The assessment especially looked at the gap on children's nutrition, malnutrition among children, and mother’s capacity.
➢ Peace building: Existing conflicts in the assessed areas, including the types and drivers of conflicts and the existing mechanisms of conflicts transformation. The capacity of the targeted communities and need for improving peace. Read More...

Multi-sectoral and integrated humanitarian assistance for the conflict displaced and most vulnerable populations in East and South Darfur – Sudan

This needs assessment was conducted internally by CARE staff led by the MEAL coordinator at national level, MEAL team and program staff at field level. The survey took place in East Darfur state during the period 25th February to 20th March 2022. The primary data in the field collected during the period 6th -11th March 2022.

WASH: the assessment collected data on the different sub sectors of WASH including:
• Water supply: Assess the availability of and ease of access to safe water by the targeted communities, water consumption and gaps, contribution of the official authorities, the main factors affecting communities’ access to safe, easy and adequate water.
• Environmental sanitation: Focus on collecting information on communities’ access to sanitation, including availability and need of household latrines, need of solid and waste disposal system.
• Hygiene promotion: Assess the level of community knowledge and gaps and types of capacity needed to improve health and hygiene.
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Comprehensive Multisector Need Assessment South Darfur State

This needs assessment was conducted by a team from CARE International Sudan, led by the MEAL coordinator. The assessment took place in South Darfur state covering Gereida locality, and East and South Jabal Mara areas in Kass locality. The objective is to assess the current situation, identify the gaps and needs of the targeted communities and recommend key interventions that meet the real needs of the people the project serves. Different methods were used for data collection, including individual interviews with household leaders, Focus Group Discussions with representatives from different community groups, desk review of the existing information, and Key Informant Interviews with the authorities in relevant ministries and institutions.
Key Findings:
• Only 7.6 % of the people in the assessed area have easy access to adequate safe water for their family. 92.4% are suffering either from difficulty in getting the water, poor quality of water, or insufficient amounts of water for their households.
• Responsibility for fetching water lies primarily with women (55%) and girls (27%). This puts not only an uneven burden on women and girls with regards to the time and energy spent, but also exposes them to various types of violence (21.9% reported this), including sexual harassment (reported by 3.8%).
• There is lack of hygiene promotion within the assessed communities, as 97% of respondents indicated they have not received any type of capacity building in WASH. This reflected in the way that communities dealing with environment and personal hygiene: Only half (50.9%) of the respondents regularly wash their hands with water and soap.
• With regards to sanitation, 45% of people practice open defecation. Interestingly, while 51.5% of the population has a latrine in their household, only 36.6% of the population uses a latrine in their household. Lack of hygiene and sanitation is associated with poor health outcomes, with open defecation contributing to the risk of (sexual) violence against women,
• The assessed areas are suffering from lack of health facilities, and the available facilities are poor in term of required services, only 36.4 % of the consulted people have health facilities in their villages, including health centers (31.3%), hospital (6.5%) and clinics (2.2%).
• Women and girls suffer from poor access to sexual and reproductive health services. Only 28.1% of deliveries are done in a health facility, with the assistance of a trained mid-wife (21.3%), nurse (3.4%) or doctor (3.4%). Home-based deliveries by a traditional mid-wife are the most common way to give birth (38.2%). The traditional mid-wives lack formal education and some of them also undertake harmful traditional practices such as Female genital mutilation.
• Malnutrition among children under 5 years is high (37.6%) as a result of; 1) lack of capacity among mothers on the importance of intensive breast feeding for infants and other best nutrition practices for other children, 2) the poverty and low level of livelihood among the targeted communities which affect their access to the food.
• Agriculture is the main source of income for 88.9% of the consulted households in the assessed area, 65% of them are women headed households, and within the consulted females 86.5% are depending on agriculture as the main source for income. 55.4% of people depending on their own agricultural production as main source of food for their families. All farmers interviewed practice traditional rain fed agriculture
• House hold income is very low in the assessed area as 84.1% of the consulted people have an income of 5,000 SDG (12 USD) or less per month, 12.4% earn 5000 -10000 SDG/Month while only 3.5% of the people earn more than 10000 SDG per month. In the months prior to harvesting, food insecurity peaks. In September 93.3% if people suffer from lack of food. Figures are also particularly high in August (58.8%) and October (19.4%). Read More...

Comprehensive Multisector Need Assessment Gedarif State

To collect the required data on the needs of the targeted people in Gedarif State, CARE conducted a comprehensive needs assessment with a team from CIS led by MEAL coordinator. It took place in Gedarif state covering three localities, namely: Al-Galabat Shargia, Al-Mafaza and Al-Fashaga. The objective of the assessment is to assess the current situation, identify the gaps and needs of the targeted communities and recommend of key interventions that meet their real needs. Different methods were used for data collection including individual interviews with HH leaders, FGDs with representative from different community groups, Desk review of the existing information and KIIs with the authorities in relevant ministries and institutions.
• In total; 58,6% of the assessed people have access to easy safe and adequate water while 41.4% are suffering from difficulties collecting water, poor quality or the water they collect is not enough for their HH1.
• Women have the main responsibility in fetching water from the sources comprising 33.2%, followed by boys and girls comprising 24%(12% each), and men have the lowest responsibility in fetching water (17.2%).
• The lack of water sources close to the housed is one of the main causes of Gender Based Violence (GBV), particularly women, girls and youth females who facing different types of violence during collecting water particularly those who need to go far distances to collect water particularly during dry season. 21.8% confirmed that women and girls are facing problems during fetching water/
• In general; less than third of the assessed people have latrines comprising 30.1% while the majority do not have latrines in their houses (69.9%). The situation in host communities is relatively better comparing to the refugees as 86.2% of the people have latrines comparing to only 13.8% of the refugees. Read More...

Barrier Analysis Study to understand the socio-economic and technical factors affecting water yards’ sustainability in Asalaya and Bahar Alarab localities, East Darfur State

Achieving sustainable operation, maintenance and management of water supply still poses major challenges in rural areas of East Darfur State, despite the progress achieved in terms of the construction of new facilities and/or rehabilitation of non-functional ones. The main objective of this study is to identify the socio-economic and technical barriers to sustain the operation and maintenance of the water yards in Bahar Al Arab and Asalaya localities. The findings will be used to design the approaches to problems of water yards’ operation and maintenance in ED. The study investigated the technical, socio-economic/cultural factors, water tariffs and policy factors influencing sustainability of water supply for rural communities in the pilot localities. Different tools and techniques were applied to collect quantitative and qualitative data from a sample size of 1400 HHs served by 28 boreholes, 5 focus group discussions with water management committees and users, 18 community meetings and 33 questionnaires targeting key informants. The collected data was analyzed using SPSS version 25.
The study findings show that there is a relationship between sustainable OM&M of water supply facilities and the technical, socio-economic, socio-cultural factors and water tariffs. The study has proved that the frequent breakdown of water facilities is largely because of poor maintenance culture. Another barrier is inadequate funds for O&M due to the way water tariff was set, collected and utilized. There was lack of involvement and participation of users in all process of water supply, which resulted in a lack of ownership and no role for users to support OM&M. Despite the fact that users are not involved in setting water tariffs, the study shows high level of users’ willing to pay for any service improvement. Technical factors were found to be limited due to lack of repairing tools like crane and inadequate technical capacity of the SWC maintenance teams at the locality level to deal with various aspects of water supply. Read More...

Sawtahaa (Her Voice) in Peacebuilding and Recovery Actions Final Evaluation

The longstanding cultural practices across Sudan often exclude women from decision making, even in issues of direct concern to them, such as early marriage and FGM. This report builds on CARE's efforts in the context of the “Sawtahaa” project to analyse women's situation in the post conflict processes and to enhance transformative change in three areas, namely: structure, relations and agency. This was directed to enhance women's role in decision making and in addressing issues of direct concern to them.

The Darfur Community Peace and Stability Fund (DCPSF) was launched in 2007 to help facilitate peacebuilding by restoring the capacity and authority of traditional community-based conflict resolution mechanism and to enhance the delivery of economic and basic social services by implementing a number of community-based activities.
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“In the Eye of the Storm”: Assessment of how Culture, Customs and Conflict are Deepening Protection Risks in Northwest Syria

Across Syria, there are estimated to be 6.9 million IDPs and a total of 14.6 million people in need of humanitarian assistance – an increase of 1.2 million from 202113 in NWS, around 4 million people, including around 3 million IDPs14, need regular humanitarian aid to meet their basic needs. This includes 1.72 million people residing in 1,397 last-resort sites, of whom 80 percent are women and children15.
According to OCHA’s Multisectoral Needs Assessment (MSNA) data from August 2021, the income gap has widened everywhere in Syria, with average household expenditure exceeding income by fifty per cent. Only 10 percent of households have an income above the cost of Syria’s Minimum Expenditure Basket. Across the country, food insecurity remains extremely high – with an estimated 12 million severely food-insecure people, Syria ranked amongst the ten most food-insecure countries globally in mid-202116. More recent data, from Humanitarian Situation Overview in Syria (HSOS)17 in May 2022, and from Mercy Corps’ research18 into the wider impacts of the conflict in Ukraine, suggest a significant deterioration in 2022.

Additionally, in September 2022, Government of Syria declared the Cholera outbreak. As of the 29th of October, a total of 4526 suspected cholera cases have been reported from NWS with 1517 (33.5%) suspected cases reported from IDP camps.26
It is essential to note that these emerging pressures have specific – and different – impacts on men and women; CARE’s commitment to Gender Equality as both a goal and an impact area (Vision 2030 Gender Equality Impact Strategy) reflects an understanding of the differing social positions of men and women, and the disproportionate impacts of conflicts, crises and disasters on women and girls27. Aligned with CARE’s commitment to Gender Equality, Gender is the primary axis of disaggregation and as such, this PNA recognizes that the consequences of increasing food insecurity, increasing prices, and the on-going impact of public health crises have implications for women and girls, not least their increased exposure to gender-based violence28. This PNA, therefore, gives dedicated attention to the specific vulnerabilities of women and girls.
The PNA is further disaggregated by age, and diversity, in alignment with CARE’s commitment to accounting for intersecting vulnerabilities, inequalities and diversity, and recognizing the varying protection needs that arise from these. The data is also analysed through the lenses of age and disability particularly, to ensure that the distinct risks and needs of different groups are both identified and addressed. This means, for example, that the specific needs of boys (gender + age) are recognized and articulated, with the acknowledgement that child labour has a particular impact on adolescent boys, ending their education and putting them at risk of injury, recruitment into criminal activity, and isolating them from support. Child marriage is recognized as a specific concern for adolescent girls as both a mechanism of attempted ‘protection’ and as a way of reducing the resource needs of a family. Women and men with disabilities have protection needs related to their gender, in relation to care (the giving and receiving of), to employment and income-generating opportunities, and to their exposure to sexual exploitation and abuse. These risks and needs are explored throughout this report.

CARE Türkiye has been providing humanitarian programs in NWS since 2013.To deliver its programs in NWS CARE currently works in partnership with five Syrian NGOs and implements directly in Jarablus, Aleppo governorate. CARE’s expertise lies in emergency response (implemented via cash, vouchers, and in-kind assistance); water, sanitation, and hygiene services; shelter and settlement; sexual and reproductive health services; protection and gender- based violence response, prevention, and risk mitigation; livelihoods and economic recovery assistance.

In December 2021, CARE Türkiye commissioned SREO Consulting to conduct a comprehensive protection needs assessment (PNA) in NWS. The main goal of this PNA was to assist CARE, as well as other protection and non-protection actors, in developing protection-responsive humanitarian interventions and addressing NWS's complex humanitarian situation. The assessment aimed to include an age, gender, and diversity (AGD) lens to better understand critical protection concerns and needs of the diverse groups in the targeted communities. Particularly, the specific protection needs, concerns, and service access barriers of adolescents and youth, as well as persons with disabilities, have been assessed to inform well-tailored and well-targeted humanitarian responses. In July 2022 CARE engaged with Heather Cole, an independent technical writer to propose a revised analysis and the final shape of this report. Read More...

WOMEN LEAD IN EMERGENCIES Global Learning Evaluation Report

CARE’s Women Lead in Emergencies (Women Lead) model has been developed to operationalise CARE’s commitment to women’s leadership as one of our four focal areas for Gender in Emergencies.1 Women Lead supports women within communities at the frontline of conflict, natural and climate-related hazards, pandemics and other crises to claim their right to a say over the issues that affect them, and to participate in emergency preparedness, response and recovery.
The Women Lead model looks to address fundamental gaps in humanitarian response that result in the exclusion of women from meaningful participation and leadership in the decisions that affect their lives.

Since 2018, CARE has piloted Women Lead in 15 locations in Colombia, Mali, Niger, the Philippines, Tonga and Uganda. In 2020, Women Lead worked directly with 804 women’s groups. Through piloting this approach in diverse locations and within different types of humanitarian crisis, Women Lead has sought to understand challenges, barriers and enablers regarding this kind of programming in different contexts.
Women’s confidence, knowledge and self-efficacy: The evaluation identifies considerable qualitative evidence of increases in confidence, knowledge and capacities. Participants identified the Women Lead model as being relevant to their needs and accessible to them. We can see evidence of women identifying Women Lead as an important enabler of collective action – supporting women to raise their voice, advocate for their needs and engage more effectively with stakeholders. Quantitative surveys support these findings. In Niger, 88% of Women Lead participants feel confident in their knowledge of their rights compared with 58% of non-participants. In Uganda, 58% of Women Lead participants reported ‘confidence in accessing services’ compared with 40% of non-participant women who said the same.
2. Women’s presence and meaningful participation in decision-making: The evaluation finds that Women Lead increases women’s presence, regularity of attendance, and meaningful and effective participation in decision-making community settings. In Niger, 91% of women who participated in Women Lead had attended formal community meetings and almost 60% said they had attended these meetings regularly compared with only 34% of non-Women Lead participants. This had occurred despite men in the community previously challenging women’s presence at these meetings. The Women Lead model appears to normalise women’s presence in decision-making spaces, and we see some evidence of women forming their own decision-making forums and creating opportunities for themselves to make decisions, take action or hold leaders to account. In Uganda, the South Sudanese Refugee Women’s Association has formally registered to become the first recognised women's community-based organisation in Omugo settlement. We also see the incorporation of Women Lead groups in Colombia, where groups have formally registered and started to offer services to other women.
3. Women’s informal and formal leadership: We see strong evidence of women feeling empowered to take up leadership positions within their community, both formally and informally. In Niger, women are significantly more likely to be leaders in their communities than non-participants (31% of Women Lead participants compared with 9% of non-participants). In Uganda, 22% of Women Lead participants hold leadership positions in their communities compared with 14% of non-participants. In Colombia, for which we have pre- and post-comparison data available for this indicator, before Women Lead 21% of members held leadership positions within their community. This had increased to 40% by the time of this evaluation. However, there is scope to enhance this work further and for there to be more consistent promotion of women’s leadership through work around political representation, leadership style and horizontal/inclusive decision-making processes.
September 2022 – Global Evaluation Report vii
4. Women take collective action: The Women Lead approach both helps empower women and serves to address complex barriers to their meaningful participation. Women Lead action plans are a useful tool to mobilise women for collective action to advocate for women’s needs and wants, organise peer support and solidarity activities, and improve their communities by engaging power-holders. Action has also frequently been taken to tackle the preconditions for participation and, in the action plans available for analysis, 42% of actions related to livelihood and income generation. This highlights the importance of women being free to prioritise according to their needs, to ensure they can tackle the preconditions of participation where necessary. We can also see clear qualitative evidence of women taking collective action to make change within their communities. This includes:
• Influencing humanitarian actors and local authorities to address the needs of women and the community: In Uganda, group members successfully advocated for humanitarian response actors to move the food distribution site closer.
• Advocating to address an injustice: In Niger, women had difficulty accessing maternity services owing to high costs. The Women Lead groups advocated to the district medical officer and the head of the hospital – and achieved a considerable reduction in the cost of accessing hospital services.
• Connecting and complementing community actors: In Uganda, Women Lead groups took a lead in addressing community tensions. For instance, when there were tensions around access to land and firewood, women worked with leaders from different communities to put in place agreements on the use of natural resources.
• Direct delivery and problem-solving: We see examples of women working to respond directly to the needs of their peers. In the Read More...

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