Inclusive Governance

Integrated Health, WASH and FSL Assistance to Conflict-affected, Displaced, and Vulnerable Households in Amran governorate, Yemen

CARE Yemen has completed implementing CDCS-supported “Integrated Health, WASH and FSL Assistance to conflict-affected, displaced and vulnerable households in Amran governorate, Yemen”. The purpose of this program is to improve health, WASH, food security, livelihoods, and wellbeing for IDPs and vulnerable host communities in Amran Governorate in Yemen.

To set benchmark values for the outcome level indicators and to measure the success of the project in achieving its goals and objectives, a baseline and endline surveys was conducted in the project’s operational targeted areas. The endline survey was conducted with samples of targeted beneficiary households living in Raydah district of Amran Governorate in August 2023. The survey mainly used quantitative methodology (i.e., household survey) to collect pertinent data.

Here are the key survey outcomes:
1. Coping Strategy Index: The average CSI score for the surveyed HHs 9.96 (male: 10.03, female: 9.85), which is indicating that participants are relatively experiencing significant resilience and recovering from using negative food coping strategies.
Food Consumption Score: The average FCS for the targeted HHs is 54.65 (male: 54.81, female: 54.41). In addition, 89.93% are in acceptable food consumption.

2. Household Dietary Diversity Score: The average HDDS for the targeted household is 6.7 which indicated that surveyed HHs is somehow adequate dietary diversity. This denotes a good medium quality of diet whereby households consume an average of around 7 food groups out of the recommended twelve food groups.

3. HHS (Household Hunger Scale): The analysis of the endline data shows that only 2.16% of households faced moderate hunger; whereas 0.0% of households faced severe hunger during the survey time.

4. Access to safe water: about 74.3% of interviewees (male: 78.6%, female: 64.3%) mentioned to have access to safe water from protected water sources such as piped water system and protected wells.

5. Time taken to collect water: Majority of respondents 91.4% replied that the water is “Available inside the house” from the primary source which have been rehabilitated by CARE.

6. Practice of water treatment: 84.3% of respondents (male: 89.8%, female: 71.4%) mentioned treating water before drinking mainly using respectively the techniques of boiling, treated from pipeline, filters, Aqua-tabs, and Chlorine.

7. Availability of household latrines: The majority 98.6% of respondents (male: 98.0%, female: 100.0%) mentioned that they do have household latrines.

8. Practice of handwashing: approximately 87.9% of respondents (male: 86.7%, female: 90.5%) wash their hands at least three out of five critical times of hand washing.

Harmony in Crisis: Unveiling Lessons of the Humanitarian Partnership Platform in Philippine Disaster Management

CARE launched the Philippines Humanitarian Partnership Platform (HPP) in 2016, which serves as an avenue to strengthen the effectiveness and efficiency of CARE and its partners’ humanitarian and development plans and work. This initiative focuses on strengthening coordination, decision- making, and collective action. Comprising 14 active member organizations including CARE and with a presence in all regions of the Philippines, the HPP has adeptly assessed and responded to 32 disasters since its inception. In FY 2022, coinciding with the devastation caused by Super Typhoon Rai—the second costliest typhoon in Philippine history after Typhoon Haiyan—the HPP supported 2,201,920 participants, both directly and indirectly. In FY 2023, it supported nearly 400,000 people in crises. Fifty percent of those directly assisted in the last 2 years are women and girls.

1. Rapid responses with flexible funding: 76% of humanitarian funding in the Philippines goes to local partners, compared to the wider sector's average of around 1.2% in 2022.
2. Gender at the center: 88% of responses mainstreamed GBV protection, surpassing the 67% in CARE’s global project portfolio.
3. Better coordination, broader reach: By coordinating across diverse actors, including corporations and local governments, local organizations can help more people faster.
4. Enhanced Learning and Accountability: All projects (100%) feature Feedback and Accountability Mechanisms, exceeding the 79% in CARE’s global project portfolio. These mechanisms are vital for rapid learning and ensuring accountability to the communities served.
5. All projects met or exceeded reach and impact targets, based on a rapid analysis of available project reports. Read More...

Conflict and Climate Vulnerability and Capacity Analysis (CCVCA) Ségou region, Mali (GENRE+II Project))

The Ségou region of Mali is experiencing a steady increase in impacts from climate change, such as more erratic and reduced rainfall, increased temperatures, intensified seasonal flooding when rains do occur, and increased incidence of human and livestock diseases. These impacts interact with population pressures and natural resource management challenges to affect historical land use practices, such as agriculture and pastoralism, in the semi-urban and rural communes within the cercles of Baraouéli, Bla and Ségou. In these communes, women engage in a range of livelihood and subsistence activities related to natural resources, such as market gardening and forest product harvesting, often significantly augmenting household income. Therefore, it is important to include women in conflict resolution mechanisms over land and water, accounting for a scenario where climate impacts are predicted to intensify.
The Genre++ project, funded by the UK’s Foreign, Commonwealth and Development Office (FCDO), works with communities to identify and address interrelated causes and impacts of climate vulnerability, conflict and gender inequality. A novel Climate and Conflict Vulnerability and Capacity Assessment (CCVCA) tool was used to carry out a rapid participatory analysis of vulnerabilities and adaptive capacity with representatives from 12 communes in Ségou region (144 female, 156 male) from 9 to 20 March 2023. This report summarises the results of this analysis, discussing how climate change has interacted with other economic and demographic pressures to create tensions around natural resource management. It also details the community members’ current responses, as well as their recommendations for future action. Read More...

Integrating Local Knowledge in Humanitarian and Development Programming: Perspectives of Global Women Leaders

This report examines local knowledge integration in the context of global development and humanitarian aid work. It builds upon a recently published report by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) called "Integrating Local Knowledge in Development Programming". That report sought to “share knowledge of how development donors and implementing organizations leverage local knowledge to inform programming.”2 This study aims to extend the original methods to better understand grassroots actors’ own interpretations of local knowledge and its integration into programming in their communities. It examines the perspectives of 29 grassroots leaders from women-led organizations around the world, looking deeply at the ways in which they conceptualize local knowledge and local knowledge stakeholders, their approaches to designing their own projects based on local knowledge, and their experiences sharing knowledge with international actors and donors. This builds the broader evidence base on integrating local knowledge to incorporate the perspectives of grassroots actors into the same conversation as the original study.
Key takeaways from this research span two broad categories – how local leaders conceptualize local knowledge and what the effective use of local knowledge in practice looks like to them. Within these categories, interviewees explored the many challenges they face in identifying and sharing knowledge; their various approaches to designing projects based on local knowledge; some of the tensions they often find themselves balancing; unique ways of measuring the contribution of such knowledge to the success of an intervention; and experiences with and strategies for sharing their knowledge with non-local actors.
In terms of how women leaders tend to conceptualize local knowledge, the research reveals three distinct but interconnected definitions of the term: 1) knowing what a community is like; 2) knowing what a community needs and where the solutions lie; and 3) having a profound connection with the community. The first definition indicates knowing a community well enough to understand the dynamics within it. The second goes a bit further to say that local knowledge means knowing both the specific needs present in a community as well as the relevant solutions for addressing them. As one respondent told us, “Contextual expertise is having experience in a certain context and being able to solve problems based on it.” And the third conceptualization indicates having a deeply rooted connection with the community or the grassroots. Some described this as “having your heart” in the community. Key to this third definition appears to be both consistency and the ability to perceive change over time. Interviewees said that local knowledge depends on people having gone through different “contexts, histories, processes, and experiences” together, and having learned from them collectively. Therefore, it is difficult, if not impossible, for international actors to acquire the same level of investment in communities that is quasi-synonymous with local knowledge unless they have lived, worked, and built relationships within them long enough to meet this consistency standard. Instead, this level of knowledge of a community and its context is fairly unique to local actors. Read More...

Young Men’s Initiative (YMI) Impact Study Research

Since 2006, a coalition of local, regional, and international organizations has been promoting positive masculine identities under the banner of the Young Men Initiative (YMI). YMI is a regional program built upon CARE’s comprehensive and programmatic effort to fight interpersonal and gender based violence (GBV), as well as improve gender equality in the region and address preventative measures related to youth extremism and violence. The program is being implemented in municipalities and high schools in Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH), Croatia, Kosovo*1, and Serbia. The heart of YMI is “Program Y” (youth), which focuses on transforming the school environment into one that promotes gender equality and a culture of non-violence. The core of Program Y’s intervention is a series of group educational workshops accompanied by social norms campaigns that promote a
critical and personal reflection on gender, masculinities, and health, with a strong focus on violence prevention. The objective of the impact study is to discover the changes that occurred in implementation sites in terms of the
perceptions, attitudes, and behaviors of young people in the period from 2014 until 2020 in key program areas: (1) gender attitudes; (2) violence prevention; (3) sexual and reproductive health; (4) alcohol and drug abuse; and (5) the prevention of sexual violence, as a result of the direct engagement of CARE and its partners. The study also aims to identify which methods and approaches Read More...

Beyond Economic Empowerment The Influence of Savings Groups on Women’s Public Participation in Fragile and (post) Conflict-Affected Settings

Promoting women’s meaningful participation and influence in governance processes in fragile and (post) conflict-affected settings (FCAS) is necessary to achieve inclusive development. Existing evidence suggests that by economically empowering women, they will be able to better participate in public decision-making processes. One such mechanism for women’s economic empowerment in Sudan is through Village Savings and Loans Associations (VSLA), which are savings groups that offer women a space to come together to save money, take out small loans, and make investment decisions.
The mixed methods study conducted in seven villages across three states (East Darfur, South Darfur, and South Kordofan) sought to answer the research question “To what extent does women’s participation in savings groups affect their public participation in governance or decision-making processes?” Additionally, this study investigated the differences between women who participated in VSLAs under the Every Voice Counts (EVC) and Latter Day Saints Charities (LDS) Recovery Support for Vulnerable Households programmes as well as the differences from participation in different community groups (VSLAs, community advocacy groups, and other community-based organisations). These comparisons helped to offer an explanation of how different programmatic approaches from civil society and different community groups did or did not affect women members’ public participation.
Through the findings of this study, it can be concluded that indeed women’s participation in savings groups (VSLAs) affects their public participation in community governance structures and decision-making. The extent, though, is dependent on a variety of factors including the gender composition of the VSLA, the support of family and community members, the support and resources contributed by programmes and partners, social norms and exclusionary practices within the communities, and the will of the women members themselves. Read More...

Enhancing resilience through improved food security, disaster risk reduction and peaceful co-existence In South and East Darfur

This base line survey was conducted for the project “Enhancing resilience through improved food security, disaster risk reduction and peaceful co-existence in South and East Darfur.” The baseline was designed to collect data in the targeted communities in South and East Darfur State to assess the situation before the start of the project and determine the benchmarks for the designed project indicators. The baseline used mixed methods for data collection, including: desk review of project documents, individual interviews with household leaders using structured questionaires, FGDs with representatives from different groups in the communities, KIIs with institutional representatives.
The targeted areas in East and South Darfur are suffering from acute and chronic malnutrition. It is widespread and poses a significant public health problem, caused by acute food insecurity, unstable livelihoods, limited health services, poor hygiene practices and the lack of access to adequate safe drinking water and sanitation practices.
Women and children travel far distance to fetch water. During the rainy season, people may get poor quality water, which negatively affects their health. The government institutions have very poor capacity and lack the required logistics to provide good and sustainable water supply.
Women and girls are vulnerable to GBV, especially when they go far distances seeking different services such as water collection, firewood, farming, marketing and markets.
Women also face a very high burden, as they are responsible and participating in all household chores such as childcare, farming, fetching water, and transporting products to markets. This negatively affects children's nutrition and hygiene practices and exacerbates malnutrition. On other hand they have a limited access to resources and income-generating activities, and do not share any responsibilities in community structure, where men alone control and have access of most resources and have more decision-making power than women.
847,126 people in South Darfur and 124,351 in East Darfur are in IPC Phase 3 or higher and unable to meet their immediate needs. Kass and East Jebel Mara in South Darfur have the highest number of people experiencing acute food insecurity at 25% and 35% respectively, which need urgent intervention to contribute in reduction of acute food insecurity caused by currency devaluation, inflation, and local conflict is hitting both states.

Promoting Peace and Socio-Economic Development among Conflict-Affected Communities In South, East Darfur and South Kordofan States

CARE has Implemented IcSP project “Promoting Peace and Socio-Economic Development for Conflict–Affected Communities in South Darfur, East Darfur and South Kordofan states" to contribute in achieving relevant results in terms of social stability, increased social cohesion, enhanced recovery and socio-economic integration among conflicting communities for selected vulnerable communities.
The final evaluation was conducted for this project from 12 September to 30 October 2021 to assess the project performance and achieving the intended results. Different methods were used for collecting the data, including: desk review, Focus Group Discussions (FGDs), Key Informant Interviews (KIIs), in addition to direct interviews with 393 household leaders, 59.2% of them are females.
The impact of conflict and dispute to the community needa to be addressed. 28.9% of respondants declare that it will led to Loss lives & properties,12% to destruction of infrastructure,16.6 % to displacement, 23.3% dismantling social coexistence,12.3% loss of livelihoods. 75% of total respondents say it will be all above.
People report that the best way and means of resolving conflict are: 84.9 % resolved by in official fair mechanism, 5.1% report that by official courts. This indicates that they trust in CBRMs are effective in solving disputes/cases and are accessible to everyone.
45.6% report that CBRMs are accessible to everyone to great extent, ,22.8 % to some extent, 8.1% minimally, and 23.6% not at all. On the other hand, 71.7% report that decisions made by conflicts resolution mechanisms are acceptable, where 23.3 % report that to some extent and 8.1% minimally.
Communities in the targeted areas get their drinking water from various sources,66% report that from water point, 23.5% from hand pumps, 8.8 % from hand dug wells, where 1.7 % from Haffir. The result indicated that around 10 % of total population get their water from contaminated surface water source other 90% get their water from safe water sources. Read More...

Sawtahaa (Her Voice) in Peacebuilding and Recovery Actions Final Evaluation

The longstanding cultural practices across Sudan often exclude women from decision making, even in issues of direct concern to them, such as early marriage and FGM. This report builds on CARE's efforts in the context of the “Sawtahaa” project to analyse women's situation in the post conflict processes and to enhance transformative change in three areas, namely: structure, relations and agency. This was directed to enhance women's role in decision making and in addressing issues of direct concern to them.

The Darfur Community Peace and Stability Fund (DCPSF) was launched in 2007 to help facilitate peacebuilding by restoring the capacity and authority of traditional community-based conflict resolution mechanism and to enhance the delivery of economic and basic social services by implementing a number of community-based activities.

Gender-Sensitive Conflict Analysis in South and East Darfur States, Sudan, 2022

CARE International in Sudan is implementing the project “Enhancing resilience through improved food security, disaster risk reduction and peaceful co-existence in South and East Darfur states, Sudan” (1 September 2021 – 31 August 2025) through funding from the German Ministry of Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ). The project addresses the specific needs, vulnerabilities, and capacities of women, youth, and persons with disabilities to strengthen their resilience to buffer, adapt, and respond to future shocks at an individual, family, and community levels. This gender sensitive conflict analysis in East and South Darfur – representing eight villages – is to understand the causes, power and gender dynamics, and actors of conflicts in the project area.

The conflict in Darfur is escalating rapidly, with eight times more people killed and displaced in 2021 than in 2020. Inflation rose by 359% in 2021. Climate change—marked by devastating floods and prolonged droughts—combined with food insecurity and a lack of services leaves people feeling violence is their only choice.
A profoundly unequal and harmful set of social norms that do not value women, and even refer to them as vessels of the devil, coupled with laws that do not protect women and their rights, are pushing many burdens of this crisis onto women. A common saying is, “Almara mamlouka ela malak Almout” or “A woman is owned to death.” As the situation gets more extreme and livelihoods and service get scarcer, women are more likely to be working outside the home to help meet family needs. Men have not increased their involvement in household chores and childcare to compensate for these shifts—leaving women with even higher burdens than before. The shifts in women having to work outside the home have not translated into corresponding improvements in women’s rights, engagement in politics, or access to public life.
This research draws from 20 focus groups and 20 Key Informant Interviews that represent the views of 193 people (45% of whom were women) in eight villages in July of 2022. It also looks at 44 secondary sources.

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