Gender Assessment

RAPID GENDER ANALYS ON POWER AND PARTICIPATION Wau, CARE South Sudan

South Sudan has experienced cycles of conflict since before its independence in 2011. Since the start of the civil war, the country has faced displacement, violence, and high rates of sexual and gender-based violence. Despite the 2018 peace deal, South Sudan continues to face intermittent violence, political instability, climate shocks, and floods. The humanitarian situation is critical, with millions of people in need.

This Rapid Gender Analysis on Power and Participation is part of the Women Lead in Emergencies project in Wau, Wau County, Western Bahr el-Ghazal State. This project is funded by Global Affairs Canada. It aims to support crisis-affected women to participate more and in more meaningful ways in community and public life and in humanitarian response in South Sudan.

This is the first Rapid Gender Analysis on Power and Participation (RGA-P) conducted in Wau. It has three main objectives: (1) analysis of crisis-affected women’s access to, and influence within, decision-making of different kinds; (2) provide practical programming and operational recommendations to support crisis-affected women to participate more in decision-making, and in more meaningful ways; and (3) identify gaps for further assessment and analysis to build a more comprehensive understanding of women’s participation and leadership in Wau over time.

The RGA-P is composed of primary qualitative data collection and a secondary data review. Primary data collection took place between Dec 2nd and Dec 6th, 2022, in four locations across Wau. It included 20 focus group discussions, 14 key informant interviews, and 4 community mappings. A total of 249 people participated, including 133 women and 116 men. This data was supplemented a validation workshop with several women’s associations and leaders.
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Mujeres Líderes en Emergencias Análisis Rápido de Género y Poder Pamplona, Norte de Santander, Colombia

Este informe de Análisis Rápido de Género (ARG)sobre el Poder examina el liderazgo de las mujeres en la respuesta humanitaria de Venezuela en Pamplona, Colombia. La crisis venezolana ha afectado a los ciudadanos venezolanos y colombianos, siendo las mujeres y las comunidades marginadas las más afectadas. Mediante entrevistas e investigación documental, se puso de manifiesto que las mujeres no participan adecuadamente en los espacios formales e informales en los que pueden influir en las decisiones que se adoptan en relación con el plan de respuesta humanitaria dirigido por el Gobierno de Colombia y los organismos de ayuda humanitaria. Las normas sociales patriarcales son una gran barrera, ya que se espera que las mujeres se queden en casa debido al control que ejercen los hombres sobre sus movimientos y la opinión de que las mujeres deben cuidar a los niños, el hogar y cocinar los alimentos, limita el tiempo de que disponen las mujeres para participar. La necesidad de encontrar una forma de ingresos también limita el tiempo de que disponen las mujeres para participar en los espacios de acción colectiva. La falta de conocimiento y conciencia sobre los derechos que tienen como mujeres y como migrantes, y sobre los spacios existentes en los que pueden participar es una barrera adicional. Para muchas mujeres migrantes, la situación irregular en Colombia hace que permanezcan en la sombra y no busquen ayuda ni participen en espacios de toma de decisiones por temor a la deportación. La discriminación sexual, calla las voces de los miembros de la comunidad LGBTIQ+, lo que da lugar a una respuesta humanitaria que no aborda adecuadamente sus necesidades.
Si bien hay barreras que enfrentan las mujeres colombianas y venezolanas afectadas por la crisis, existen oportunidades para aumentar su participación, por ejemplo, por parte de organizaciones femeninas y feministas ya existentes en la región, las organizaciones comunitarias informales de migrantes, y la participación en las mesas del GIFMM como método para que las mujeres actúen conjuntamente para exigir atención y recursos para sus prioridades y directamente afectadas por la crisis. Read More...

CARE Rapid Gender Analysis on Power INCREASE: Northern Samar, Philippines

Vulnerable groups – particularly women – suffer most from natural and man-made hazards. Now more than ever, there is a need to account for their needs and interests in public decision-making spaces to ensure that community-based disaster risk reduction (DRR) mechanisms and governance structures are effective, inclusive, and are sustainably adopted. Providing women with the opportunity and ability to actively participate in DRR planning and solutions not only amplifies their voice in decisions that affect their lives, but also harnesses their potential in leading community DRR work.
Aimed at increasing the resilience of small-scale farmers, fisher folk – with focus given to female headed-households and women collectives in its partner communities, Project INCREASE sought to augment its
women engagement activities and advocacy work through (1) piloting the Women Lead in Emergencies (WLiE)
action research model in its activities, and (2) drawing insights from the Rapid Gender Analysis on Power (RGA-POW) conducted in nine crisis-affected barangays in Mapanas, and Palapag, Northern Samar, Philippines covered by the project.
This RGA-POW provides information about the different needs, capacities and aspirations of women – with a focus on the structural and relational barriers to, and opportunities for women’s leadership and public participation during and after emergencies, as well as relevant information on the local context from previous studies (e.g. post-distribution monitoring reports, rapid gender analyses, etc.).
Apart from demonstrating that women do have power and exercise this with other women, the report also outlines underlying reasons for limited public voice and decision-making for different groups of women, and identifies potential resistors and risks, as well as present opportunities and actions that can address observed barriers. Thus, providing promising directions for WLiE in INCREASE. Read More...

A comparative study of Category Five Tropical Cyclone Pam in Vanuatu

Vanuatu is made up of 83 islands scattered across 1200 square kilometers of the Pacific Ocean, leaving remote populations isolated and making access and service delivery difficult. Vanuatu is well established as one of the most disaster-prone countries in the world, with cyclones, volcanoes, earthquakes, tsunamis, droughts, and floods among the hazards faced (UNU 2015). On 13 March 2015, Category Five Tropical Cyclone Pam (TC Pam), one of the worst cyclones to hit the Pacific region, struck Vanuatu and other Pacific Islands. TC Pam brought very destructive winds, storm surges, and flooding across huge areas of Vanuatu, destroying homes, schools, health facilities, crops, and livestock and affecting approximately 188,000 people, or 70% of the population (Government of Vanuatu 2015a). Read More...

Rapid Gender Analysis on Power & Participation (RGA-P) Women Lead in Emergencies Mawlamyine, Mon State, Myanmar

This is the first Rapid Gender Analysis on Power and Participation (RGA-P) report completed in Mawlamyine, Mon State, Myanmar. An RGA-P assesses the impact of crisis on gender, power relations and women’s participation and leadership.
Key findings
• Social norms severely limit women’s rights, voice and access to decision making and leadership roles in the community.
• Formal and informal decision-making spaces are still largely dominated by men.
• There are limited all female community groups active in the targeted communities.
• When women are participating in formal governance positions or community groups, they are relegated to support roles and have no opportunities to influence decision making within those spaces.
• Social and economic insecurity as a result of the military coup and resulting violence, COVID and other issues have increased security concerns across Myanmar and contribute to the barriers faced by women in relation to participation and leadership in their community. Read More...

Rapid Gender Analysis on Power and Participation: Women Lead in Emergencies Northern Shan State, Myanmar

As of December 2022, there are 1.4 million internally displaced people (IDP) in Myanmar.4 Over 40,000 people remain in neighboring countries like Bangladesh, Thailand, and India since the takeover. More than 18,058 civilian properties, including houses, churches, monasteries, and schools are estimated to have been destroyed during hostilities, although figures are difficult to verify. The level of destruction of civilian properties, particularly homes, combined with the seemingly never-ending fighting will very likely prolong the displacement of the IDPs and would further deteriorate their already fragile living conditions. The current volatile security situation and its associated restrictions, such as bureaucratic processes, systematic blocks on access approvals, continue to hamper humanitarian access and delay the delivery of assistance.

The purpose of this Rapid Gender Analysis on Power & Participation (RGA-P) is to build a better understanding as to whether and how women are able to participate in the community and in decision making spaces in the Northern Shan State of Myanmar and what changes may have occurred as a result of the conflict and women’s participation and leadership. The research was conducted through primary and secondary data collection in July 2022 in three villages in the Lashio Township of the Northern Shan State, Myanmar.
Summary of the findings
The main factors that were found to restrict women’s access and opportunity to participate in public decision making and leadership roles were related to
➢ Social norms and expectations of the role women are expected to play/hold in society and the views that female characteristics are not fit for leadership roles.
➢ The expectation that women are responsible for all of the household chores, childcare and care for elderly.
➢ Restrictions on women’s movement (controlled by husbands and elder family members) also impedes women’s rights to engage in spaces outside of the home.
➢ In addition, barriers such a slow literacy rates in Myanmar language (the language used is most formal meetings/decision making spaces) Read More...

Rapid Gender Analysis Policy Brief: Türkiye & Northwest Syria Earthquake Response

Earthquakes are gender neutral - they affect everyone in their vicinity - but their impacts are not. Gender inequality exacerbates the impact of disasters, and the impacts of disasters exacerbate gender inequality. The earthquake in Türkiye and Northwest Syria (NW Syria) – the largest earthquake to affect the region in 200 years - occurred in areas already affected by mass displacement and population movements for over a decade, as well as long-standing protection issues. One thing is clear, however, where the impacts of the earthquake are gendered, the response must be too. This first Rapid Gender Analysis (RGA) Brief explores existing gender, age and disability data and information to understand pre-existing vulnerabilities and capacities and how best humanitarians can respond to meet people’s different needs. Read More...

Sacrificing the Future to Survive the Present: North East Syria RGA

Amid a tense and fragile security situation, both male and female participants in this rapid gender analysis (RGA) identified their main concerns as their loss of income and livelihoods and the increased cost of food. The intensifying food crisis is further aggravated by disruptions to wheat production, climate change, continued insecurity and the war in Ukraine, which has significantly reduced Syria’s grain imports.
The fragility of the food system, combined with the water crisis and the near collapse of the labor market, has aggravated chronic food insecurity and malnutrition in the region, leading to profound short and long-term impacts on health and resilience. One in three children face malnutrition, and those under five need nutritional interventions, as do pregnant and lactating women.
Most households that took part in this RGA said their food needs were not being met despite aid distributions. Female-headed households, widows and people with disabilities are particularly vulnerable. About 38% of households living in camps for internally displaced people (IDPs) are female-headed.
The number of female heads of household and other women in the labor market has increased, but limitations on women’s mobility, economic participation and decision making persist, as do social and cultural expectations about the role of men as main decision makers and community leaders.
All respondents said the conflict was increasingly restricting their freedom of movement. Women’s main fears in terms of their mobility related to harassment and exploitation, and men’s to kidnap or recruitment by armed actors. All respondents identified lack of transportation, high costs and insecurity as the main obstacles to accessing health services. Read More...

CARE Rapid Gender Analysis on Power and Participation (RGA-P) Kassala Sudan

This Rapid Gender Analysis on Power and Participation (RGA-P) was carried out to understand women’s participation in both formal and informal structures, and the barriers to and opportunities for supporting women’s meaningful participation and leadership during the health and WASH protracted crisis in Kassala State. This RGA P was conducted in Kassala, a state in East Sudan, which borders Ethiopia and Eritrea and has a population of 2,8 million with a population of 1,271,780 below the age of 18. Annually, Kassala state is affected by natural crisis, floods, droughts and subsequent desertification, as well as man-made crisis. Refugees from Tigray and Eritrea settled in Kassala, making the state susceptible to higher rates of trafficking, smuggling and violence. Kassala state is one of the states with the country’s worst social indicators on malnutrition. Women and adolescent girls are exposed to high rates of female genital mutilation (FGM), high risk of kidnapping and high rates of child early marriage; with FGM and gender based violence (including FGM and early child marriange) all normalized within society. The prevalence of FGM in Kassala is at 40 % and children as young as six years are being engaged to be married.
As part of the RGAP, a training was conducted with staff and partner staff on Women Lead in Emergencies (WLiE). The training helped staff to appreciate the approach as well as the methodology. Following the training, a team of sixteen staff members (15 female and 1 male) participated in the primary data collection in three villages. Focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted with groups of women and men. Key informant interviews (KIIs) were held with women leaders, community leaders, government officials as well as one of the agencies that has been implementing in the area. Secondary data collection was also done to triangulate and validate findings.
Women in the three villages visited have limited decision making power and voice, both within the home and in public spaces. Some of the barriers to participation cited by women included lack of education, harmful social norms and practices that limit women and girls’ mobility and participation in public, and limited access and control over resources.
In the three villages where this RGA P focused, Wad Eissa, Shalataib, and Wad Bau villages, findings indicated there are no women participating in the key local level governance structure, referred to as the Popular Committee. Men occupy all the leadership positions and where women’s names were included in the membership list, it was often tokenistic without the women’s own awareness of their role. Apart from the popular committee, there is a community level “father’s group” that supports education in Wad Bau, there were no other visible formal or informal decision-making structures.
Only one active women’s group was identified in Wad Elisa, but no other women’s groups or associations were identified in the rest of the three villages. The group in Wad Eisa had been formed as a result of interventions lead by a German NGO, Welthungerhilfe (WHH), in the area. The other villages had had limited interactions with outside organizations both national, international and even the government.
The entry points to enhancing women’s participation and leadership during the health and WASH protracted crisis in Kassala State can be through the engagement of the traditional and trained midwives, the female teachers, and the mothers’ groups. CARE under the health and nutrition project are looking to form mothers and fathers’ group. This will help bring women together and create safe spaces for women to work together. In the three villages, there are trained midwives, and in Wad Bau there are three female teachers. These women already have the respect and support of the women, and these women can conduct awareness sessions and facilitate discussions with groups of women, regarding their concerns and how they can come together and take the lead in addressing issues that affect them. As teachers are often from outside the village and stay only for a few months at a time, this can be an effective starting point for engaging women but a more sustainable approach will need to be considered as well. Through the father’s groups, men and boys can be engaged, to mitigate GBV risks, that could emerge, due to women’s participation in decision making regarding different community issues. According to one of the male leaders, men have been resistant of women participating in decision making platforms, and social norms are not open to women speaking in front of men.
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Rapid Gender Analysis Sinjar District, Ninewa Governorate, Iraq

CARE International in Iraq (CARE Iraq) with the support of the Crisis Centre of the French Ministry of Europe and Foreign Affairs (CDCS), is providing Livelihood and Protection services in Sinjar District in Ninewa governorate. CARE Iraq is implementing the services through its local partner Dak Organization for Ezidi Women Development (Dak). CARE Iraq undertook a Rapid Gender Analysis (RGA) to understand different gender norms, roles, and power dynamics, in addition to the specific needs of women, girls and vulnerable people in the project locations to ensure safe, equitable and dignified access to the services.
The conflict in Iraq and the protracted humanitarian crisis have had a severe impact on infrastructure and service delivery in general, which, together with the COVID-19 pandemic and the rise of the unemployment rate, has led to an increase in existing Gender Based Violence (GBV) and protection risks. The continuance of political and economic instabilities is having a huge effect on the population as a whole; however, conflicts and emergencies impact women and girls differently, and understanding different roles, dynamics and needs will help improve the quality of and access to those services. Sinjar District is the most affected area by the Islamic State of Iraq and Levant (ISIL); it has suffered a tragic human loss in addition to the loss of infrastructure, livelihoods, and homes. Following the liberation in 2017, IDPs started to move back to Sinjar; however, until this date, the provision and availability of basic services like health, Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene (WASH), and livelihoods, as well as reconstruction of housing and infrastructure, is relatively low. The current situation has a negative impact on the community in terms of safety and security, which is clearly reflected in the lowest IDP return rates (35%) compared to other districts in Iraq in 20211.
There are several concerns around livelihoods and the lack of adequate protection services for the targeted community that need to be addressed to ensure safe and equitable access to all members of the community. Read More...

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