Food and Nutrition Security

LIVELIHOODS FOR RESILIENCE ACTIVITY ENDLINE INTERMEDIATE RESULTS (IR) ASSESSMENT

The Feed the Future Ethiopia-Livelihoods for Resilience Activity (L4R) is a 6.5-year USAID project led by CARE, with the goal of improving food security for 97,900 chronically foodinsecure households in multiple Ethiopian regions. It aims to achieve resilient livelihoods through four main objectives. Zerihun Associates was contracted to and conduct an Endline Assessment using mixed methods, and managed data collection of the endline, ensuring quality through rigorous processes. Despite challenges, Zerihun Associates successfully gathered data from 1802 out of 1849 sampled households. However, the study faced limitations due to external factors, seasonal variations, and methodological inconsistencies, potentially impacting findings' comparability. Using both cross-sectional and panel data, the study reveals a mix of success and challenges.
Income
Devaluation of the birr during the project period, combined with rising inflation and cost of inputs, negatively impacted household’s net inflation-adjust income over time. While in unadjusted terms net incomes increased 154%, when adjusted for inflation, net incomes experienced a 19% decline among cross-sectional households from baseline to endline. At endline, there was an increase in the proportion of households earning income from crop and livestock production and transfers and other sources, but a decline in households earning income from off-farm and wage employment, compared to baseline. There was a slight increase in the average number of income sources per
household between baseline and endline (1.5 and 1.7 sources respectively).
Household Assets
The longitudinal analysis of household assets among both cross-sectional and panel data reveals a generally upward trend in overall household asset values and, particularly, in livestock assets over the period from the baseline to the endline. When adjusted for inflation, the overall asset value showed a 43% increase in the cross-sectional data and a 25% increase in the panel data. Livestock assets consistently played a pivotal role in this growth. This rise is particularly notable given the challenging economic conditions, including conflicts.
On-Farm livelihoods
The cross-sectional analysis on household livelihood activities, specifically focusing on Value Chain (VC) engagement, reveals a complex pattern of participation over time. Initially, there was a promising uptick in households engaged in at least one prioritized VC, increasing from 49.5% at baseline to 71.0% in Year 3. This was followed by a decline, reaching 45.9% by the endline. However, there was a slight increase in households engaged in two or more prioritized value chains between baseline and endline, increasing from 38% to 40%. Read More...

Promoción del desarrollo económico rural en mujeres y jóvenes de la region Lempa (PROLEMPA)

El proyecto evaluado “Promoción del Desarrollo Económico Rural de la Mujer y la Juventud de la Región Lempa de Honduras – PROLEMPA, fue financiado por Asuntos Mundiales de Canadá – AMC; e implementado por un consorcio conformado por CARE Internacional (líder), CESO-SACO, SAJE Montreal Center, SOCODEVI y TechnoServe. Tuvo una duración de 5.5 años, de julio de 2017 a abril de 2023. El presupuesto asignado para la intervención fue $13.019.834; y se llevó a cabo en el Corredor Seco de Honduras, de manera específica en los departamentos de Intibucá, La Paz y Lempira, con cobertura de 25 municipios en total.

La evaluación final de PROLEMPA se realizó con base en los criterios de evaluación relevancia, eficiencia, efectividad, impacto y sostenibilidad; el análisis de los enfoques de género y empoderamiento de mujeres, y sostenibilidad ambiental; y la identificación de aprendizajes y buenas prácticas, dando respuesta a las preguntas de evaluación que guiaron el análisis, interpretación y emisión de juicios de valor. Se utilizó una metodología mixta (cualitativa y cuantitativa) con un abordaje participativo que ubicó a las personas en el centro del análisis y la reflexión sobre la gestión y agencia de su desarrollo. Se utilizaron fuentes primarias (productores y productoras de café, liderazgo de las organizaciones de productores, representantes de empresas exportadoras de café, Redes Municipales De Mujeres, Red Regional De Mujeres Lencas, representantes de Oficinas Municipales De La Mujer, Oficinas Municipales De Juventud, emprendedores y emprendedoras, empresas y actores del sector turismo, equipos técnicos de las organizaciones socias del consorcio y socias locales, entre otras. Read More...

HATUTAN Endline Evaluation

In this report, we present findings from the endline evaluation of the HATUTAN (Hahán ne’ebé Atu fó Tulun ho Nutrisaun no Edukasaun or Food to Support Nutrition and Education) program. Running between 2018 and 2023, the program worked in partnership with the Government of Timor-Leste and development stakeholders to address two strategic objectives: improved literacy of school-aged children and increased use of health, nutrition, and dietary practices. The program operated in 443 schools and communities within four of Timor-Leste’s most deprived municipalities, Ainaro, Ermera, Liquica, and Manatuto, supporting an estimated 105,967 target beneficiaries including school-aged children, teacher, school administrators, and community members. Key activities included support for the government-run School Feeding Program (SFP) and trainings targeting teachers, school administrators, and community members. Read More...

Uganda: Food insecurity a pressing concern

The Development Initiative for Northern Uganda (DINU) was a 38-month long project (January 2020 to February 2023) with an aim to improve food security, maternal and child nutrition, and household incomes for smallholder farmers in 11 districts of Uganda. The project has three major outcomes: increased production of diversified food by both men and women smallholder farmers, enhanced market accessibility for these farmers, and improved nutrition and family planning services through gender responsive community-based approaches. As a result, here was a significant 16.3% increase in adoption and production of diverse food crops and animal products, as well as 23.8% increase in the adoption of climate-smart technologies among the project participants. Read More...

Australian NGO Cooperation Program (ANCP) Meta-Review of Evaluations

This report presents the findings of a review of the evaluations of seven programs funded by DFAT through the ANCP and implemented by CARE (Australia and respective country partners).
The purpose is to identify and summarise lessons learned, areas for development and examples of good practice that will inform CARE Australia’s implementation of its new theory of change. The review is intended for both internal and external audiences, including DFAT. Read More...

GENDER ANALYSIS FOR INCLUSIVE SMALL HOLDER FARMERS IN NORTHERN UGANDA (DINU PROJECT)

The Development Initiative for Northern Uganda (DINU) is a Government of Uganda program with support from the European Union. DINU was awarded to a CARE Denmark led Consortium comprising of CARE International in Uganda, Gulu Agricultural Development Company (GADC), Catholic Relief Services (CRS), Dynamic Agro-pastoralist Development Organization (DADO) and SORUDA. The consortium is implementing a project for inclusive market-based development for small holder farmers in Northern Uganda covering eleven districts.
Key Findings:
* Gender division of labour shows that women and girls do the bulk of unpaid care work. Women do 70% of household chores, and children 15%.
• Over 80% of couples report joint household decision making on sales and purchases but control over sales income is largely under men.
• Women are a majority in savings groups though borrowing is contested. Land is accessible to the entire household, but control is largely by men. Men also control credit, savings, and access to business skills.
• Gender norms influence nutrition, income, gender-based violence and enjoyment of SRHR. Read More...

Guatemala: A food insecurity constant reality

From 2020 to 2022, 21.1% of Guatemala’s population was affected by severe food insecurity, with a gender food gap of 0.3 million. According to a study conducted by CARE in Guatemala in 2022 in Guatemala’s dry corridor, 42% of households had exhausted all grain from the previous harvest; 33% had grain reserves lasting only three more months or less; 21% of households incurred debt to purchase food; 38% of households reduced their meal sizes; 22% of respondents ate less or abstained entirely, prioritizing their children's meals; 31% skipped at least one meal daily. IPC predicted that food security is expected to deteriorate from June to August 2023, due to the rise in food prices. In total, it is estimated that approximately 604 thousand people (3% of the population) are in Emergency (Phase 4) and close to 3.6 million (21% of the population) in Crisis (Phase 3).
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IMPACT OF SANCTIONS ON FOOD SECURITY AND LIVELIHOODS IN NIGER Rapid Analysis Results in Tillabéry

The humanitarian situation in Niger was already urgent prior to the July 2023 political crisis and the imposition of sanctions by the international community. 4.3 million people, approximately 17% of Niger’s population, are in need of humanitarian assistance and 3.3 million people are projected to be experiencing crisis or worse levels of acute food insecurity. CARE recently conducted focus group discussions (FGD) in Tillabéry to determine how the crisis has affected food prices, livelihoods, and coping strategies for communities. Eight sex-disaggregated FGDs with 64 participants were completed at the end of August 2023 to analyze crisis impacts, especially for the most vulnerable, and to inform age, gender and disability-responsive humanitarian response in Niger.
ANALYSIS OF THE IMPACT OF SANCTIONS ON FOOD SECURITY AND LIVELIHOODS:
Women and men reported facing challenges in sustaining their eating habits in the months and weeks to come, with women and girls reporting more difficulty maintaining current consumption patterns. 75% of the women’s FGDs reported that they would not be able to sustain current eating habits at all and only one all-women’s group estimated their normal food consumption to continue for only 2 weeks. All 4 men’s groups reported that they would all be able to maintain current eating habits, but only for approximately 30-90 days beyond survey time.
RISING FOOD PRICES: ⅔ of participants attributed the rise in food prices to the political crisis and subsequently imposed sanctions. Maize and rice, staple items in most household diets, are reported to have increased by 75% and 28% respectively one month after the crisis. Read More...

Afghanistan Multi Sector Needs Assessment 2023

According to Humanitarian Needs Overview 2023, a staggering 28.3 million people (two thirds of Afghanistan’s population) are in need for urgent humanitarian assistance in order to survive as the country enters its third consecutive year of drought-like conditions and the second year of crippling economic decline, while still reeling from the effects of years of continued disaster

In March 2023, CARE conduct the Multi-sectoral Needs Assessment (MSNA) to assess the condition of needs, vulnerabilities, and poverty in the selected communities within mentioned provinces to help inform proposals to potential donor for lifesaving responses in sectors of EiE, Health, Nutrition, Livelihood, WASH and some integrated GBV and nutrition interventions for longer-term support to address their ongoing vulnerabilities.
This research covered 381 people (50% women) in 9 provinces in Afghanistan. Most respondents were between 24-45 years old, and 83% were host community members. The other 17% were internally displaced people.
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Nigeria State Of Emergency Declaration On Food Security: A Policy Brief

In recent times, insecurity, climate change and its effects (including seasonal flooding, competing resource use and open conflict) and high inflation have brought Nigeria to the brink of a food crisis. Between January and April 2023, it was estimated by a consortium of UN agencies and other partners (October Cadre Harmonise, including WFP and UNICEF) that as many as 25m people could face food insecurity between June and August of 2023.
This comes at a time when the Global Economic Outlook report H1 2023, KPMG, estimated the unemployment rate in Nigeria at the end of 2022 at 37.7% while estimating that this would rise to 40.6% in 2023 and 43% in 20241. The World Poverty Clock indicates that 71 million Nigerians live in extreme poverty, the largest number globally.
The real impact of these hikes on inflation and food inflation will not be statistically revealed until the respective rates for July are released since these would be based on data for June. We, however, know from the National Bureau of Statistics (NBS), as well as from market surveys and observations, that a significant contributing factor to the price of goods and services in general, and food prices in particular, is the cost of transportation of food across the food value
chain - the cost of transportation of inputs and farm labour to the farm; the cost of transportation of farm produce to storage facilities, and or markets; the cost of transportation of processed food to markets, etc. among others. Read More...

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