Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene

Evaluation of Circuit Rider System Established in Assalaya and Bahar EL Arab Localities- East Darfur State

In the quest to address sustainability challenges in OM&M of water yards in Assalaya and Bahar EL Arab localities in East Darfur (ED), CARE supported a Circuit –Rider (CR) approach as post construction support. This study was done to evaluate the progress that has been made so far regarding the improvement in the OM&M and sustainability of
the water yards. The specific objective was to measure improvements in term of water yard break downs and the time taken to repair, community empowerment to effectively manage and operate the facility, assess the supply chain, water tariff collection and adequacy to cover O&M cost and the technology appropriateness. The study also sought
to assess the CR and WUC performance and type of training they received. Data was collected using questionnaire survey, interviews, focus group discussions and field observations and the obtained data analyzed using (IBM SPSS V.254).
The evaluation results show that the project is very relevant to the village needs and State priority and has address one of the WASH sector strategic area. The most powerful success factor of the project was its ground-breaking approach to OM&M of the water facilities through introduction of the CR approach. The approach, based on the evaluation results, proved to be very effective and efficient. Despite the gap in the training of the WUC and limited services being provided by the CRs, the project has made appropriate choice by shifting from the conventional approaches to maintenance that largely been based on community alone taking on the burden of sustaining OM&M to a system that community and SWC share the roles and responsibilities. The evaluation findings also indicate that as a result of the approach, there is highly willingness to pay for further improvement, community trust on SWC has increased and social cohesion is well evidenced from sharing the water facilities by different community groups and segment. However, social mobilization and advocacy are essential components to better organize the communities, raise their awareness and sensitize decision makers, and they have not given the required attention. Read More...

Barrier Analysis Study to understand the socio-economic and technical factors affecting water yards’ sustainability in Asalaya and Bahar Alarab localities, East Darfur State

Achieving sustainable operation, maintenance and management of water supply still poses major challenges in rural areas of East Darfur State, despite the progress achieved in terms of the construction of new facilities and/or rehabilitation of non-functional ones. The main objective of this study is to identify the socio-economic and technical barriers to sustain the operation and maintenance of the water yards in Bahar Al Arab and Asalaya localities. The findings will be used to design the approaches to problems of water yards’ operation and maintenance in ED. The study investigated the technical, socio-economic/cultural factors, water tariffs and policy factors influencing sustainability of water supply for rural communities in the pilot localities. Different tools and techniques were applied to collect quantitative and qualitative data from a sample size of 1400 HHs served by 28 boreholes, 5 focus group discussions with water management committees and users, 18 community meetings and 33 questionnaires targeting key informants. The collected data was analyzed using SPSS version 25.
The study findings show that there is a relationship between sustainable OM&M of water supply facilities and the technical, socio-economic, socio-cultural factors and water tariffs. The study has proved that the frequent breakdown of water facilities is largely because of poor maintenance culture. Another barrier is inadequate funds for O&M due to the way water tariff was set, collected and utilized. There was lack of involvement and participation of users in all process of water supply, which resulted in a lack of ownership and no role for users to support OM&M. Despite the fact that users are not involved in setting water tariffs, the study shows high level of users’ willing to pay for any service improvement. Technical factors were found to be limited due to lack of repairing tools like crane and inadequate technical capacity of the SWC maintenance teams at the locality level to deal with various aspects of water supply. Read More...

Learning From Failure 2022

In 2019 and 2020, CARE published Learning from Failures reports to better understand common problems that projects faced during implementation. Deliberately looking for themes in failure has helped CARE as an organization and provides insight on what is improving and what still needs troubleshooting. This report builds on the previous work to show what we most need to address in our programming now.
As always, it is important to note that while each evaluation in this analysis cited specific failures and areas for improvement in the project it reviewed, that does not mean that the projects themselves were failures. Of the 72 evaluations in this analysis, only 2 showed projects that failed to deliver on more than 15% of the project goals. The rest were able to succeed for at least 85% of their commitments. Rather, failures are issues that are within CARE’s control to improve that will improve impact for the people we serve.
To fully improve impact, we must continue to include failures in the conversation. We face a complex future full of barriers and uncertainties. Allowing an open space to discuss challenges or issues across the organization strengthens CARE’s efforts to fight for change. Qualitative analysis provides critical insights that quantitative data does not provide insight into the stories behind these challenges to better understand how we can develop solutions.
CARE reviewed a total of 72 evaluations from 65 projects, with 44 final reports published between February 2020 and September 2021 and 28 midterm reports published between March 2018 and October 2020. Seven projects had both midterm and final evaluations at the time of this analysis. For ease of analysis, as in previous years, failures were grouped into 11 categories (see Annex A, the Failures Codebook for details).

The most common failures in this year’s report are:
• Understanding context—both in the design phase of a project and refining the understanding of context and changing circumstances throughout the whole life of a project, rather than a concentrated analysis phase that is separate from project implementation. For example, an agriculture project that built it’s activities assuming that all farmers would have regular internet access, only to find that fewer than 10% of project participants had smartphones and that the network in the area is unreliable, has to significantly redesign both activities and budgets.
• Sustainability—projects often faced challenges with sustainability, particularly in planning exit strategies. Importantly, one of the core issues with sustainability is involving the right partners at the right time. 47% of projects that struggled with sustainability also had failures in partnership. For example, a project that assumed governments would take over training for project participants once the project closed, but that failed to include handover activities with the government at the local level, found that activities and impacts are not set up to be sustainable.
• Partnerships—strengthening partnerships at all levels, from government stakeholders to community members and building appropriate feedback and consultation mechanisms, is the third most common weakness across projects. For example, a project that did not include local private sector actors in its gender equality trainings and assumes that the private sector would automatically serve women farmers, found that women were not getting services or impact at the right level.
Another core finding is that failures at the design phase can be very hard to correct. While projects improve significantly between midterm and endline, this is not always possible. There are particular kinds of failure that are difficult to overcome over time. Major budget shortfalls, a MEAL plan that does not provide quality baseline data, and insufficient investments in understanding context over the entire life of a project are less likely to improve over time than partnerships and overall MEAL processes.
Some areas also showed marked improvements after significant investments. Monitoring, Evaluation, Accountability, and Learning (MEAL), Gender, Human Resources, and Budget Management are all categories that show improvements over the three rounds of learning from failures analysis. This reflects CARE’s core investments in those areas over the last 4 years, partly based on the findings and recommendations from previous Learning From Failure reports. Specifically, this round of data demonstrates that the organization is addressing gender-related issues. Not only are there fewer failures related to gender overall, the difference between midterm and final evaluations in gender displays how effective these methods are in decreasing the incidence of “failures” related to engaging women and girls and looking at structural factors that limit participation in activities.
Another key finding from this year’s analysis is that projects are improving over time. For the first time, this analysis reviewed mid-term reports in an effort to understand failures early enough in the process to adjust projects. Projects report much higher rates of failure at midterm than they do at final evaluation. In the projects where we compared midline to endline results within the same project, a significant number of failures that appeared in the mid-term evaluation were resolved by the end of the project. On average, mid-term evaluations reflect failures in 50% of possible categories, and final evaluations show failures in 38% of possible options. Partnerships (especially around engaging communities themselves), key inputs, scale planning and MEAL are all areas that show marked improvement over the life of the project.

Provision of life-saving WASH services to the Rohingya refugee population in Ukhiya and Teknaf Upazila, Cox’s Bazar District.

Applying both quantitative and qualitative tools and approaches, the KAPB was conducted. It covers 777 respondents' households from camps 15 and 16. After quality checking, 757 household response was finalized. Among them, 242 household survey was for Camp 16. All data collection was done with mobile in KoBo. The samples were drawn stratified random sample process. First, the sample size was determined following the most common statistical formula, then stratified. The objectives
of the study are as follows: 1) To know the present situation context on WASH; 2) To identify the targeted respondent's current Knowledge, Attitude, Practice, and Behavior (KAPB). Read More...


The baseline evaluation was conducted in the five Counties of Isiolo, Turkana (Turkana West Sub-County only), Wajir, Garissa, and Marsabit, in the month of April 2022. A mixed-method study approach was used entailing: a desk review of secondary literature; quantitative household interviews of 1970 household heads; Key Informant Interviews (KIIs) of 40 County Governments staff and private sector stakeholders from the water, livestock, and rangelands resources
development sectors; and Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) with community members and leaders as managers and users of water and rangelands resources Read More...

Improved WASH Services to the Myanmar Refugees Population in camps 15 (Jamtoli) and 16 (Potibonia), Ukhiya Upazila, Cox’s Bazar

Applying both quantitative and qualitative tools and approaches, the end-line assessment was conducted in February 2022. It covers 415 respondents' households from camps 15 and 16—data collection done with tablets in KoBo. The samples were drawn systematically. First, the sample size was determined following the most common statistical formula. The objectives of the study are as follows: 1) To know the present situation context on WASH; 2) To identify the targeted respondent's current Knowledge, Attitude and Practice (KAP).

The study findings reveal the following:
- The most commonly reported primary sources for drinking water were Piped water tap/Tap Stand, reported by 66% of households.
- In terms of water collection, male engagement has been increased. Overall, 86% of households reported women, followed by adult males (55%) and Children (6%). However, the male also helps them when they cook and cloth wash.
- Overall, only 2% of households reported a combined travel and waiting time of more than 30 Water containers.
- Females preferred to get 'Kolsi' (a pitcher) instead of Bucket or Jerrycan for carrying water. On the other hand, male and adolescent children preferred Jerrycan for carrying the water.
- 76% of respondents feel safe collecting enough water to meet their households' needs, such as drinking, cooking, laundry, bathing etc. However, women also reported that they feel unsafe because men go to water points to collect water.
- A significant proportion of households (88%) do not treat drinking water. Because they believe the drinking water source is safe—12% of households use the aqua tab to treat their water.
- The most-reported defecation (sanitation options) for household members five and above was communal latrines 86%, followed by shared latrines 14%, and single-household latrines 7%. Others places (2 %), bucket and open defecation was seldom reported 1%.
- The accessible latrine is one of the beauties of this project. This latrine is included: The railing on the way, The handle inside, The tap, The commode, The single-use.
- The community also thinks that these latrines will be equally helpful for elderlies.
- A significant 79% responded to the affirmative of privacy of latrine use. A significant number of
- 18% of the households' female members use the designated bathing facilities. However, this figure is low because of privacy concerns.
- All (100%) respondents mentioned that they cleaned every time they filled with fresh/clean water. While at the time of hurriedness, that type of cleaning activity has disrupted.
- 100% of households owned soap at the time of the interview. The study further explored other hand washing options/solutions households use when they do not have soap; because of CoVID-19, all respondents, even children, are aware of handwashing. They can recall the critical time of handwashing.
- Regarding the best way to receive health and hygiene messages, 45% stated Home visits by volunteers, and 2nd choice is by the local leaders. However, the study findings also revealed that only 7% of households said they do not know how to prevent diarrhea.
- 69% of females used reusable clothes, 16% used disposable pads. The reusable cloth is the most preferred for use during the menses.
- Most female respondents said they wash and reuse the MHM materials and dispose of way is Household/Trash bin, Throw in the open waste area/communal bins, In the latrine, Bury in the soil, and, Burn them
- Consideration of men, women and girls carrying water and provide water container that these particular groups prefer;
- The child-to-chid session needs to discuss the importance of Gender Marker because children remove the gender markers frequently, which causes a problem for the women;
- Need to keep attention to the elderly person in terms of WASH facilities along with Persons with Disabilities;
- Video documentaries for hygiene promotion may be more effective together; in this connection, CARE can collaborate with "shongjog" which is the open platform of CwC in Rohingya Camp. Read More...

Knowledge Attitude & Practice (KAP) Survey of WASH Services Project in Dadaab Refugee Camps

The European Commission Directorate General Humanitarian Aid & Civil Protection (ECHO) funded CARE to implement Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) project in Ifo, Dagahaley and Hagadera refugee camps in Dadaab. The overall objective of the project was self-reliance in the provision of essential WASH services for persons of concern in Dadaab refugee camps.
Specifically, the project focused on provision of potable water, managing solid waste disposal and delivering a comprehensive environmental sanitation program that incorporated vector control and health/hygiene promotion for refugees and COVID-19 response. The overall objective of this survey was to examine knowledge, attitudes and practices of the beneficiaries, gaps in the WASH activities in Dagahaley, Ifo and Hagadera camps and to provide information that would improve future programming.
The survey adopted a cross-sectional descriptive research design, and employed quantitative and qualitative methods of data collection which included: Literature Review, 392 Household Surveys, four Key Informant Interviews (KIIs), three Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) and direct observations.

COOPERER III Relèvement et renforcement Financier des populations vulnérables affectées par la COVID 19 RAPPORT DE L’ÉTUDE DE BASE

CARE International au Cameroun a obtenu à travers CARE France un soutien financier du Centre de Crise et de Soutien (CDCS) du Ministère français de l'Europe et des Affaires Etrangères, pour implémenter le projet : « Relèvement et renforcement Financier des populations vulnérables affectées par la Covid-19 », en abrégé « COOPERER III » ou encore « ResCOV-19 », sur le corridor Kaélé-Touloum-Yagoua dans la région de l’Extrême-Nord du Cameroun, sur la période du 1er Avril 2021 au 31 Mars 2022. S’inscrivant dans la continuité de ses actions entrepris à travers les projets COOPERER I et COOPERER II dans ces localités (Kaélé, Touloum et Yagoua), CARE se propose de poursuivre le soutien de la résilience économique et de protéger les moyens de subsistance des femmes et des jeunes touchés directement ou indirectement par la Covid-19, en valorisant les acquis des précédents projets.
L’action de CARE Cameroun dans ces Communes est de : « Contribuer à l’accès aux services sociaux de base en matière d’accès à l’eau et aux opportunités économiques des femmes et des jeunes touchés par la pandémie de la COVID-19 dans la Région de l’Extrême-Nord du Cameroun, Axe Kaélé-Touloum-Yagoua ». De manière spécifique il sera question de : (1) Renforcer et sensibiliser le personnel des communes et les communautés sur la protection Covid et la gouvernance autour des infrastructures sociales de base (point d’eau, hygiène), dans les communes de Kaélé, Touloum et de Yagoua, (2) Améliorer l’accès des femmes et les jeunes dans les zones Kaélé, Touloum et Yagoua, aux opportunités économiques via une approche de sensibilisation et développement économique.
Les principales recommandations issues de cette étude vont dans le sens de :
▪ Poursuivre la sensibilisation des CGPE sur l’importance de leur adhésion à la micro-assurance ;
▪ Organiser un recyclage/formation des membres des CGPE et de la micro-assurance sur leurs rôles et responsabilités ;
▪ Accompagner les bureaux de micro-assurance à l’élaboration des statuts et règlements intérieurs (pour celles qui n’en disposent pas) ;
▪ Définir clairement les responsabilités des communes vis-à-vis de la micro-assurances des forages ;
▪ Faire un plaidoyer auprès de l’exécutif municipal pour qu’ils apportent un appui au fonctionnement de la micro-assurance notamment en ce qui concerne l’acquisition d’un bureau ;
▪ Renforcer la dynamique associative à travers la redynamisation/création des réseaux d’AVEC fortes et interconnectées ;
▪ Poursuivre le processus d’autonomisation des femmes via le renforcement des capacités en matière de leadership, d’entrepreneuriat y compris le pouvoir de négociation. Read More...

Post Distribution Monitoring/Evaluation finale du projet « COVID-19 : Prévention, protection et relèvement économique »

Les premiers cas de COVID-19 ont été enregistrés au Cameroun en début mars 2020. Au 18 avril 2020 le Cameroun est le 2e pays le plus touché en Afrique subsaharienne et le premier pays de la CEMAC avec 7860 cas confirmés au 08 juin 20201. Afin de limiter la propagation du virus COVID19, le gouvernement a mis en place des mesures de prévention strictes, dont la suspension des
vols commerciaux, la fermeture des frontières, la fermeture des écoles, la fermeture dès 18h des bars, restaurants et lieux de loisirs, l’interdiction de rassemblements de plus de 50 personnes, ou encore l’obligation du port du masque en public à partir du 13 avril 2020.
Pour apporter sa contribution à cet effort de solidarité, CARE International au Cameroun, a mis en œuvre le « Projet COVID-19 : Prévention, protection et relèvement économique » dans le District de santé de Biyem-Assi (Yaoundé) de juin à septembre 2020 en ciblant spécifiquement 150 femmes et filles IDPs et TS. Mis en œuvre en collaboration avec Horizons Femmes, ce projet a fait l’objet d’une évaluation finale interne afin de mesurer et apprécier les changements (éventuels) dus à l’intervention du projet sur les bénéficiaires par rapport à la période concernée.
En ce qui concerne la qualité de l’intervention, l’évaluation établit : (i) la pertinence du projet qui est aligné sur les besoins prioritaires des cibles, les objectifs de développement durable et les politiques nationales, y compris les stratégies de réponse face au COVID-19 ; (ii) une efficacité et une efficience satisfaisantes, les activités réalisées ayant permis d’atteindre les objectifs visés à des coûts et des délais raisonnables ; (iii) une pérennité envisagée, malgré la courte durée du projet, notamment par la continuité de certaines activités dans le cadre du projet CHAMP ; une prise en compte du genre acceptable, ce qui a permis d’adresser les besoins différenciés à chaque groupe ciblé par le projet.
Les recommandations formulées vont dans le sens de : (i) élargir l’intervention dans d’autres zones accueillant la même cible ; (ii) clarifier au lancement du projet les différents niveaux de diffusion de l’information ainsi que le type d’information à communiquer ; (iii) déployer le transfert monétaire inconditionnel dans davantage de projets du programme de redressement et relèvement post-crise ; (iv) accompagner les bénéficiaires ayant développé/redynamisé des AGR à la maturation de leurs activités ; (v) penser à une composante qui permettent aux IDPs qui le souhaitent de retourner vers leurs localités d’origine dans la mesure ou la situation sécuritaire évoluerait dans le sens de l’apaisement ; (vi) revoir la stratégie de sensibilisation sur la Hotline en insistant sur la signification du terme « Hotline » ou trouvant une appellation plus accrocheuse ; (vii) conserver la dynamique du code unique et l’implication des bénéficiaires dans les différentes étapes du projet pour une meilleure redevabilité. Read More...

HBCC (Hygiene and Behavior Change Coalition) Project: Inclusive Communities – Changing behaviors to respond to COVID-19

The “Promoting safer hygiene practices for women and girls to remain safe and live better lives project has been implemented between the 23rd of July 2020 and the 31st of August 2021 through CARE International in Jordan and funded by Unilever-UKAID HBCC (Hygiene Behaviour Change Coalition). The project’s overall objective was to support the most vulnerable women and girls in conflict communities, refugee, asylum and host populations within the Syrian crisis region to improve their key hygiene behaviours and be better equipped to protect themselves from COVID-19 transmission through mass awareness, interpersonal communication and digital media communication.
CARE Jordan implemented a package of multiple interventions which includes mass media, digital communication, and in some cases targeted face-to-face interactions complemented by the provision of hygiene and dignity kits to promote key hygiene behaviours of the targeted beneficiaries. The mass media and digital campaign, which targeted community members who live in Amman, Zarqa/Azraq town, Irbid, Mafraq, and Azraq Refugee Camp, but also reached beyond these areas in particular with the mass media intervention; focused on a variety of messages in line with the national/local Health Service approved guidelines as well as some of the Unilever Global assets like the PASSWORD Campaigns, Snake and Ladder game, and Mobile Doctorni. Messages covered issues of prevention, protection, safety, security and where to seek early support when showing signs and symptoms of COVID-19. Read More...

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