Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene

ANCP WASH Endline Evaluation: Putting Women and Girls at the Center of Improving WASH and Health Chivi District, Zimbabwe

CARE International in Zimbabwe, with funding from the Australian Government through the Australian NGO Cooperation Program (ANCP) implemented a five-year Rural WASH project in Chivi District, Masvingo, Zimbabwe. The project commenced in July 2017 and is ending in June 2022. It was implemented in 10 wards. The Chivi ANCP WASH Project was being implemented in collaboration with Government Ministries and Departments through the District Water Supply and Sanitation sub-Committee (DWSSC) with CARE playing a facilitatory role in implementing field activities. The project aimed to improve the water, sanitation and hygiene services in 10 Wards in Chivi South, and targeted 1700 households (65 391 people-13609 men, 16456 women, 18394 girls and 16 932 boys). The project was implemented in two main phases, each phase covering 5 wards. Within those two phases, the needs and areas of interventions were annually reviewed together with DWSCC and new targets and their supporting budgets developed. The three thematic areas of the project were: rehabilitation of WASH Infrastructure; construction of girl child friendly, disability and gender sensitive toilets and demand led sanitation and hygiene. At the end of the project, CARE commissioned an End of Project Evaluation whose purpose was to assess progress made in the implementation of planned activities and in achieving the objectives and expected results as described in the project documents. A consultant was engaged who used internationally and widely used standard evaluation criteria of relevance, coherence, effectiveness, efficiency, impact, and sustainability. Read More...

USAID Gap Women and Water Alliance Year 6 and Final Report

Gap Inc. is proud to close an enriching and impactful six years of implementation of the USAID Gap Inc. Women + Water Alliance. Looking back at six years of programming, Gap Inc. has learned immensely about the challenges and range of locally driven solutions related to women’s empowerment and improving access to water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) in communities touched by the apparel industry in India. Thanks to this partnership, Gap Inc. is now able to articulate the power of WASH and women’s empowerment work in both strengthening relationships with cotton growing communities and building pride for Gap Inc. among employees.
The Women + Water Alliance launched in 2017 with five partners and ambitious goals. Over six years, the partnership’s theory of change evolved to prioritize activities that proved most effective in reaching women’s empowerment and WASH goals. Learning and adaptation included adding a sixth partner, WaterAid, to strengthen the partnership’s community water management approach. Through COVID-19 partners adapted their approach to implementation to allow for virtual coaching and distanced learning to progress on empowerment and WASH goals. To realize the full potential of the W+W Alliance and make up for delays associated with COVID-19 related implementation, the W+W Alliance was extended for one additional year, moving its end date from 2022 to 2023. Read More...

Multi-sectoral and integrated humanitarian assistance for the conflict displaced and most vulnerable populations Sudan

This baseline survey was conducted for the USAID/BHA funded project “Multi-sectoral and integrated humanitarian assistance for the conflict displaced and most vulnerable populations in South and East Darfur” implemented by CARE International in Sudan. The baseline was designed to collect data in selected communities in southern and eastern Darfur State to assess the situation before the start of the project and determine baseline values for project indicators. The baseline used multiple methods for data collection, including desk review of project documents, individual interviews with household leaders using a structured questionnaire, Focus Group Discussions (FGD) with representatives of different groups in the communities, Key Informant Interviews (KII) with the respective institutions.

When asked how much water they collect per day for all uses, it was discovered that households collect a mean of 5.6 Jeri Can per day (1 Jerrican=20 liters) which gives 17 litters/day/person from all sources including unsafe ones, keeping in mind that this water is collected from all sources including unsafe ones and for all types of uses.

Access to latrine: From the total surveyed families, 39% do not have access to latrines (48.3% M, 31.9% F). Lack of access to latrines is common in SD, with the majority of HH (55.9%) without access compared to ED (21.4%). And from the total families;23.3% of the HH surveyed acknowledged that their family members usually practice open defecation (26.4%M, 20.8%F), 23.5% use community latrines, and 3.8% share latrines with their neighbors. 51.8% of those who have latrines are inaccessible to people with disabilities (61.5%M, 44.2%F).
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EVALUATION FINALE DU VOLET – Mission d’Action de proximité via des ONGs

Amélioration de la situation sanitaire de la CUA et la réduction des problèmes d’inondations liés au réseau d’assainissement pluvial. Read More...

Provision of lifesaving and sustainable WASH services for Vulnerable Populations in South Darfur and South Kordofan states, and emergency WASH services to Tigray refugees in Gedaref State Endline

This final evaluation conducted for the project “Provision of lifesaving and sustainable WASH services for Vulnerable Populations in South Darfur and South Kordofan states, and emergency WASH services to Tigray refugees in Gedarif State." The was evaluation conducted internally by CARE staff, led by the MEAL coordinator and the MEAL team in the field with support and cooperation from the project team. The evaluation took place in the three States (South Darfur, South Kordofan and Gedarif States) where project operated. The evaluation team used different methods for data collection, including FGDs, KIIs and desk reviews.
The project contributed to the reduction of morbidity and mortality through increased access to lifesaving and sustainable WASH services for 265,914 914 people (71877 women, 69058 men, 63740 girls, 61239 boys), especially targeting vulnerable refugees, IDPs and host community members in South Darfur, South Kordofan, and Gedaref states. The project also pre-positioned essential WASH supplies for any emergency or outbreak, which exceeded the targeted 248,017 individuals.
Based on the findings from direct consultation of the project beneficiaries and other stakeholders; the project was implemented with high effectiveness and efficiency, and good signs for sustainability for most of it is interventions. The project achieved all the planned interventions, and supported targeted beneficiaries to improve access to safe water, sanitation and improve hygiene practices.
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Provision of lifesaving and sustainable WASH services for Vulnerable Populations in South Darfur and South Kordofan states, and emergency WASH services to Tigray refugees in Gedarif State Baseline

This baseline survey was conducted internally by CARE staff, led by the MEAL coordinator. The main objective is to collect information on the project's indicators and to provide baseline data generated for the intervention areas in South Darfur and South Kordofan States. The baseline data was collected in SD using both quantitative and qualitative methods. In SK, the project used endline data from the recently ended ECHO project as a baseline, as that dataset covers the same areas and same indicators. The data collection and consultation involved 253 individuals (118 females, 135 males). 123 people were consulted in SD (34 females, 89 males) while 130 were consulted in SK (84 females, 46 males).
All consulted households have no water inside houses, and they have to go to collect water from external sources. The distance to water sources varies between communities, and takes considerable time they spend fetching water. Most of households confirmed they collect more than 5 Jerri Cans of water per day, but this is not available all year. This water is not only for human consumption and use; they use it also for animal consumption and irrigating trees.
There are many problems in water sources affecting participants' access to safe water. The top rated problems are the high cost of water, continuous breakdown of water points, congested water sources, and far distance to the sources.
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Gender-sensitive WASH, Health/SRHR, and Nutrition support to vulnerable communities in East Darfur and South Darfur Project

This baseline study is carried out for the project "The Gender-sensitive WASH, Health/SRHR, and Nutrition support to vulnerable communities in East Darfur and South Darfur Project." The project builds on CARE learning over many years in the region, responds to the global overviews and the donor GAC interest in saving the lives of conflict affected communities, by providing urgent humanitarian assistance to 144,173 persons including females, males, girls and boys, from the host, IDPs and refugees’ communities, located in 7 localities in ED and 2 localities in SD. The key live saving activities delivery is designed with a gender sensitive perspective focusing on the health and nutrition needs of pregnant and lactating women and girls of reproductive age and children under 5. The project activities include; WASH, Health and nutrition interventions. Read More...

Comprehensive Multisector Need Assessment Gedarif State

To collect the required data on the needs of the targeted people in Gedarif State, CARE conducted a comprehensive needs assessment with a team from CIS led by MEAL coordinator. It took place in Gedarif state covering three localities, namely: Al-Galabat Shargia, Al-Mafaza and Al-Fashaga. The objective of the assessment is to assess the current situation, identify the gaps and needs of the targeted communities and recommend of key interventions that meet their real needs. Different methods were used for data collection including individual interviews with HH leaders, FGDs with representative from different community groups, Desk review of the existing information and KIIs with the authorities in relevant ministries and institutions.
• In total; 58,6% of the assessed people have access to easy safe and adequate water while 41.4% are suffering from difficulties collecting water, poor quality or the water they collect is not enough for their HH1.
• Women have the main responsibility in fetching water from the sources comprising 33.2%, followed by boys and girls comprising 24%(12% each), and men have the lowest responsibility in fetching water (17.2%).
• The lack of water sources close to the housed is one of the main causes of Gender Based Violence (GBV), particularly women, girls and youth females who facing different types of violence during collecting water particularly those who need to go far distances to collect water particularly during dry season. 21.8% confirmed that women and girls are facing problems during fetching water/
• In general; less than third of the assessed people have latrines comprising 30.1% while the majority do not have latrines in their houses (69.9%). The situation in host communities is relatively better comparing to the refugees as 86.2% of the people have latrines comparing to only 13.8% of the refugees. Read More...

Evaluation of Circuit Rider System Established in Assalaya and Bahar EL Arab Localities- East Darfur State

In the quest to address sustainability challenges in OM&M of water yards in Assalaya and Bahar EL Arab localities in East Darfur (ED), CARE supported a Circuit –Rider (CR) approach as post construction support. This study was done to evaluate the progress that has been made so far regarding the improvement in the OM&M and sustainability of
the water yards. The specific objective was to measure improvements in term of water yard break downs and the time taken to repair, community empowerment to effectively manage and operate the facility, assess the supply chain, water tariff collection and adequacy to cover O&M cost and the technology appropriateness. The study also sought
to assess the CR and WUC performance and type of training they received. Data was collected using questionnaire survey, interviews, focus group discussions and field observations and the obtained data analyzed using (IBM SPSS V.254).
The evaluation results show that the project is very relevant to the village needs and State priority and has address one of the WASH sector strategic area. The most powerful success factor of the project was its ground-breaking approach to OM&M of the water facilities through introduction of the CR approach. The approach, based on the evaluation results, proved to be very effective and efficient. Despite the gap in the training of the WUC and limited services being provided by the CRs, the project has made appropriate choice by shifting from the conventional approaches to maintenance that largely been based on community alone taking on the burden of sustaining OM&M to a system that community and SWC share the roles and responsibilities. The evaluation findings also indicate that as a result of the approach, there is highly willingness to pay for further improvement, community trust on SWC has increased and social cohesion is well evidenced from sharing the water facilities by different community groups and segment. However, social mobilization and advocacy are essential components to better organize the communities, raise their awareness and sensitize decision makers, and they have not given the required attention. Read More...

Barrier Analysis Study to understand the socio-economic and technical factors affecting water yards’ sustainability in Asalaya and Bahar Alarab localities, East Darfur State

Achieving sustainable operation, maintenance and management of water supply still poses major challenges in rural areas of East Darfur State, despite the progress achieved in terms of the construction of new facilities and/or rehabilitation of non-functional ones. The main objective of this study is to identify the socio-economic and technical barriers to sustain the operation and maintenance of the water yards in Bahar Al Arab and Asalaya localities. The findings will be used to design the approaches to problems of water yards’ operation and maintenance in ED. The study investigated the technical, socio-economic/cultural factors, water tariffs and policy factors influencing sustainability of water supply for rural communities in the pilot localities. Different tools and techniques were applied to collect quantitative and qualitative data from a sample size of 1400 HHs served by 28 boreholes, 5 focus group discussions with water management committees and users, 18 community meetings and 33 questionnaires targeting key informants. The collected data was analyzed using SPSS version 25.
The study findings show that there is a relationship between sustainable OM&M of water supply facilities and the technical, socio-economic, socio-cultural factors and water tariffs. The study has proved that the frequent breakdown of water facilities is largely because of poor maintenance culture. Another barrier is inadequate funds for O&M due to the way water tariff was set, collected and utilized. There was lack of involvement and participation of users in all process of water supply, which resulted in a lack of ownership and no role for users to support OM&M. Despite the fact that users are not involved in setting water tariffs, the study shows high level of users’ willing to pay for any service improvement. Technical factors were found to be limited due to lack of repairing tools like crane and inadequate technical capacity of the SWC maintenance teams at the locality level to deal with various aspects of water supply. Read More...

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