GENDER-BASED VIOLENCE & FOOD INSECURITY: What we know and why gender equality is the answer

This brief delves deeper into the relationship between food insecurity, gender inequality, and gender-based violence (GBV), calling attention to the specific ways in which violence intersects with food insecurity and women’s experience of hunger, particularly within their homes. It highlights how investing in gender transformative approaches doesn’t just make women safer—it helps them access food, helps their families eat more, and can even increase food production overall. Read More...

Impact Evaluation of the Integrated Humanitarian Assistance Project that aiming to Reduce the Secondary Impacts of COVID-19 on the Most Vulnerable Populations in South and East Darfur

The evaluation intended to assess integrated WASH, health, nutrition, and multipurpose cash assistance (MPCA) programs. The evaluation conducted to answer questions related to quality and relevance of the project design, its activities and objectives in addressing the priority issues. This is in addition to assessment of project efficiency and to what extent the project resources have been used economically and in a timely manner. Moreover, the evaluation assessed the effectiveness and major achievements of the project to date. The evaluation also assessed the project impact and to what extent the project contributed to provision of sustainable, adequate, and lifesaving WASH, Health and Nutrition services to the targeted communities. This beside Identification of which positive outcomes that likely to continue after the project ends in addition to assessment of bottlenecks, opportunities and lessons learned to inform future planning.
Based on the desk review of available data, the evaluation was deploying different approaches to ensure rich data and triangulation of findings. These approaches were combining qualitative and quantitative methods to maximize validity and reliability. The main methods of data collection used were interviews with the primary stakeholders, observation, asking questions, review of documents and transect walking at sites. Different tools for data collections were used as well that included focus group discussions with different target groups, and observation check list, Key Informant Interview, questionnaire, asking open and closed questions with beneficiaries at water points and at health and nutrition centers.
The project is in line with national and State WASH plans. It was also found that, the project followed and complied with SMoH specifications and guidelines. The comprehensive community consultation indicated that all project activities, technology adopted, and outputs are quite relevant to the target communities and their actual needs and also appropriate for the selected areas. Generally, the evaluation team concluded that, the planned activities were completed with same allocated initial budget. Despite difficulties and challenges in the SLA areas and at sites located in territories between the government and SLA areas the evaluation team believes that, the project is efficient in terms of implementation of the planned activities and management of resources. Read More...

Enhancing resilience through improved food security, disaster risk reduction and peaceful co-existence In South and East Darfur

This base line survey was conducted for the project “Enhancing resilience through improved food security, disaster risk reduction and peaceful co-existence in South and East Darfur.” The baseline was designed to collect data in the targeted communities in South and East Darfur State to assess the situation before the start of the project and determine the benchmarks for the designed project indicators. The baseline used mixed methods for data collection, including: desk review of project documents, individual interviews with household leaders using structured questionaires, FGDs with representatives from different groups in the communities, KIIs with institutional representatives.
The targeted areas in East and South Darfur are suffering from acute and chronic malnutrition. It is widespread and poses a significant public health problem, caused by acute food insecurity, unstable livelihoods, limited health services, poor hygiene practices and the lack of access to adequate safe drinking water and sanitation practices.
Women and children travel far distance to fetch water. During the rainy season, people may get poor quality water, which negatively affects their health. The government institutions have very poor capacity and lack the required logistics to provide good and sustainable water supply.
Women and girls are vulnerable to GBV, especially when they go far distances seeking different services such as water collection, firewood, farming, marketing and markets.
Women also face a very high burden, as they are responsible and participating in all household chores such as childcare, farming, fetching water, and transporting products to markets. This negatively affects children's nutrition and hygiene practices and exacerbates malnutrition. On other hand they have a limited access to resources and income-generating activities, and do not share any responsibilities in community structure, where men alone control and have access of most resources and have more decision-making power than women.
847,126 people in South Darfur and 124,351 in East Darfur are in IPC Phase 3 or higher and unable to meet their immediate needs. Kass and East Jebel Mara in South Darfur have the highest number of people experiencing acute food insecurity at 25% and 35% respectively, which need urgent intervention to contribute in reduction of acute food insecurity caused by currency devaluation, inflation, and local conflict is hitting both states.

Comprehensive Multisector Need Assessment South Kordofan State

The overall objective of need assessment is to assess the current situation, identify the gaps and needs of the targeted communities and recommend of key interventions that meet the real needs of the targeted people. The data was collected in four sectors:
➢ Food Security and Livelihoods (FSL): Covers the issues that relate to, and affect the livelihood of the targeted people, including the sources of income, capacity of people, opportunities, with giving special consideration to agriculture and animal resources as they are the main activities in the targeted areas.
➢ WASH: Hygiene promotion/awareness and hand washing practices, access to dignified, safe, clean and functional excreta disposal facilities, sufficient and safe water for domestic use, particularly in the targeted locations.
➢ Health and Nutrition: Situation and gaps in health services including public and maternity health. The assessment especially looked at the gap on children's nutrition, malnutrition among children, and mother’s capacity.
➢ Peace building: Existing conflicts in the assessed areas, including the types and drivers of conflicts and the existing mechanisms of conflicts transformation. The capacity of the targeted communities and need for improving peace. Read More...

Multi-sectoral and integrated humanitarian assistance for the conflict displaced and most vulnerable populations in East and South Darfur – Sudan

This needs assessment was conducted internally by CARE staff led by the MEAL coordinator at national level, MEAL team and program staff at field level. The survey took place in East Darfur state during the period 25th February to 20th March 2022. The primary data in the field collected during the period 6th -11th March 2022.

WASH: the assessment collected data on the different sub sectors of WASH including:
• Water supply: Assess the availability of and ease of access to safe water by the targeted communities, water consumption and gaps, contribution of the official authorities, the main factors affecting communities’ access to safe, easy and adequate water.
• Environmental sanitation: Focus on collecting information on communities’ access to sanitation, including availability and need of household latrines, need of solid and waste disposal system.
• Hygiene promotion: Assess the level of community knowledge and gaps and types of capacity needed to improve health and hygiene.

Comprehensive Multisector Need Assessment South Darfur State

This needs assessment was conducted by a team from CARE International Sudan, led by the MEAL coordinator. The assessment took place in South Darfur state covering Gereida locality, and East and South Jabal Mara areas in Kass locality. The objective is to assess the current situation, identify the gaps and needs of the targeted communities and recommend key interventions that meet the real needs of the people the project serves. Different methods were used for data collection, including individual interviews with household leaders, Focus Group Discussions with representatives from different community groups, desk review of the existing information, and Key Informant Interviews with the authorities in relevant ministries and institutions.
Key Findings:
• Only 7.6 % of the people in the assessed area have easy access to adequate safe water for their family. 92.4% are suffering either from difficulty in getting the water, poor quality of water, or insufficient amounts of water for their households.
• Responsibility for fetching water lies primarily with women (55%) and girls (27%). This puts not only an uneven burden on women and girls with regards to the time and energy spent, but also exposes them to various types of violence (21.9% reported this), including sexual harassment (reported by 3.8%).
• There is lack of hygiene promotion within the assessed communities, as 97% of respondents indicated they have not received any type of capacity building in WASH. This reflected in the way that communities dealing with environment and personal hygiene: Only half (50.9%) of the respondents regularly wash their hands with water and soap.
• With regards to sanitation, 45% of people practice open defecation. Interestingly, while 51.5% of the population has a latrine in their household, only 36.6% of the population uses a latrine in their household. Lack of hygiene and sanitation is associated with poor health outcomes, with open defecation contributing to the risk of (sexual) violence against women,
• The assessed areas are suffering from lack of health facilities, and the available facilities are poor in term of required services, only 36.4 % of the consulted people have health facilities in their villages, including health centers (31.3%), hospital (6.5%) and clinics (2.2%).
• Women and girls suffer from poor access to sexual and reproductive health services. Only 28.1% of deliveries are done in a health facility, with the assistance of a trained mid-wife (21.3%), nurse (3.4%) or doctor (3.4%). Home-based deliveries by a traditional mid-wife are the most common way to give birth (38.2%). The traditional mid-wives lack formal education and some of them also undertake harmful traditional practices such as Female genital mutilation.
• Malnutrition among children under 5 years is high (37.6%) as a result of; 1) lack of capacity among mothers on the importance of intensive breast feeding for infants and other best nutrition practices for other children, 2) the poverty and low level of livelihood among the targeted communities which affect their access to the food.
• Agriculture is the main source of income for 88.9% of the consulted households in the assessed area, 65% of them are women headed households, and within the consulted females 86.5% are depending on agriculture as the main source for income. 55.4% of people depending on their own agricultural production as main source of food for their families. All farmers interviewed practice traditional rain fed agriculture
• House hold income is very low in the assessed area as 84.1% of the consulted people have an income of 5,000 SDG (12 USD) or less per month, 12.4% earn 5000 -10000 SDG/Month while only 3.5% of the people earn more than 10000 SDG per month. In the months prior to harvesting, food insecurity peaks. In September 93.3% if people suffer from lack of food. Figures are also particularly high in August (58.8%) and October (19.4%). Read More...

Comprehensive Multisector Need Assessment Gedarif State

To collect the required data on the needs of the targeted people in Gedarif State, CARE conducted a comprehensive needs assessment with a team from CIS led by MEAL coordinator. It took place in Gedarif state covering three localities, namely: Al-Galabat Shargia, Al-Mafaza and Al-Fashaga. The objective of the assessment is to assess the current situation, identify the gaps and needs of the targeted communities and recommend of key interventions that meet their real needs. Different methods were used for data collection including individual interviews with HH leaders, FGDs with representative from different community groups, Desk review of the existing information and KIIs with the authorities in relevant ministries and institutions.
• In total; 58,6% of the assessed people have access to easy safe and adequate water while 41.4% are suffering from difficulties collecting water, poor quality or the water they collect is not enough for their HH1.
• Women have the main responsibility in fetching water from the sources comprising 33.2%, followed by boys and girls comprising 24%(12% each), and men have the lowest responsibility in fetching water (17.2%).
• The lack of water sources close to the housed is one of the main causes of Gender Based Violence (GBV), particularly women, girls and youth females who facing different types of violence during collecting water particularly those who need to go far distances to collect water particularly during dry season. 21.8% confirmed that women and girls are facing problems during fetching water/
• In general; less than third of the assessed people have latrines comprising 30.1% while the majority do not have latrines in their houses (69.9%). The situation in host communities is relatively better comparing to the refugees as 86.2% of the people have latrines comparing to only 13.8% of the refugees. Read More...

Evaluation of Circuit Rider System Established in Assalaya and Bahar EL Arab Localities- East Darfur State

In the quest to address sustainability challenges in OM&M of water yards in Assalaya and Bahar EL Arab localities in East Darfur (ED), CARE supported a Circuit –Rider (CR) approach as post construction support. This study was done to evaluate the progress that has been made so far regarding the improvement in the OM&M and sustainability of
the water yards. The specific objective was to measure improvements in term of water yard break downs and the time taken to repair, community empowerment to effectively manage and operate the facility, assess the supply chain, water tariff collection and adequacy to cover O&M cost and the technology appropriateness. The study also sought
to assess the CR and WUC performance and type of training they received. Data was collected using questionnaire survey, interviews, focus group discussions and field observations and the obtained data analyzed using (IBM SPSS V.254).
The evaluation results show that the project is very relevant to the village needs and State priority and has address one of the WASH sector strategic area. The most powerful success factor of the project was its ground-breaking approach to OM&M of the water facilities through introduction of the CR approach. The approach, based on the evaluation results, proved to be very effective and efficient. Despite the gap in the training of the WUC and limited services being provided by the CRs, the project has made appropriate choice by shifting from the conventional approaches to maintenance that largely been based on community alone taking on the burden of sustaining OM&M to a system that community and SWC share the roles and responsibilities. The evaluation findings also indicate that as a result of the approach, there is highly willingness to pay for further improvement, community trust on SWC has increased and social cohesion is well evidenced from sharing the water facilities by different community groups and segment. However, social mobilization and advocacy are essential components to better organize the communities, raise their awareness and sensitize decision makers, and they have not given the required attention. Read More...


Step-Up to Empower Women & End Violence (SEEV) Project in South Kordofan State Sudan was funded by the Dutch Ministry of Foreign Affairs. The project was developed and planned to be implemented during the period December 2019 – to March 2021 and later extended to June, 2021 (including the 3-month non –cost extension).

SEEV directly contributes to the achievement of Sustainable Development Goals “Reduced Inequalities” no. 10, “Decent work and Economic growth” no. 8, “Zero Hunger”, no 2, and Peace, “Justice and Strong Institutions” no.16. It is in line with the principles of UN Security Council Resolution 1325. Furthermore, the project is in line with the priorities of the Dutch Ministry of Foreign Affairs as outlined in their Policy Document on Foreign Trade and Development Cooperation; reducing poverty social inequality, preventing conflict and instability, promoting sustainable and inclusive growth and climate action.
The Final Evaluation of SEEV project was undertaken during the period 15 August 2021 – 30 September, 2021). The primary aim of SEEV project was to provide the project stakeholders with information about the performance of the project in relation to its stated objectives. The evaluation also examined the project relevancy, efficiency, effectiveness, and impact in addition, documentation of feasible practices and lessons learned.

Promoting Peace and Socio-Economic Development among Conflict-Affected Communities In South, East Darfur and South Kordofan States

CARE has Implemented IcSP project “Promoting Peace and Socio-Economic Development for Conflict–Affected Communities in South Darfur, East Darfur and South Kordofan states" to contribute in achieving relevant results in terms of social stability, increased social cohesion, enhanced recovery and socio-economic integration among conflicting communities for selected vulnerable communities.
The final evaluation was conducted for this project from 12 September to 30 October 2021 to assess the project performance and achieving the intended results. Different methods were used for collecting the data, including: desk review, Focus Group Discussions (FGDs), Key Informant Interviews (KIIs), in addition to direct interviews with 393 household leaders, 59.2% of them are females.
The impact of conflict and dispute to the community needa to be addressed. 28.9% of respondants declare that it will led to Loss lives & properties,12% to destruction of infrastructure,16.6 % to displacement, 23.3% dismantling social coexistence,12.3% loss of livelihoods. 75% of total respondents say it will be all above.
People report that the best way and means of resolving conflict are: 84.9 % resolved by in official fair mechanism, 5.1% report that by official courts. This indicates that they trust in CBRMs are effective in solving disputes/cases and are accessible to everyone.
45.6% report that CBRMs are accessible to everyone to great extent, ,22.8 % to some extent, 8.1% minimally, and 23.6% not at all. On the other hand, 71.7% report that decisions made by conflicts resolution mechanisms are acceptable, where 23.3 % report that to some extent and 8.1% minimally.
Communities in the targeted areas get their drinking water from various sources,66% report that from water point, 23.5% from hand pumps, 8.8 % from hand dug wells, where 1.7 % from Haffir. The result indicated that around 10 % of total population get their water from contaminated surface water source other 90% get their water from safe water sources. Read More...

Filter Evaluations

Clear all