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Bangladeshi Sailors Vulnerability to HIV and AIDs

Enhancing Mobile Populations’ Access to HIV and AIDS Services, Information, and Support (EMPHASIS) is a 5-year initiative funded by the UK’s Big Lottery Fund. The project has been implemented by CARE in three countries,
Bangladesh, India and Nepal. This study was initiated to generate evidence around the vulnerabilities faced by migrant populations traveling to India. Both qualitative and quantitative methods were used to explore the vulnerability of sailors and a standard BCC questionnaire was used to assess knowledge around HIV and AIDS. Qualitative methods were used to compliment quantitative findings to reveal other socio-economic dynamics that can contribute HIV and AIDS related vulnerabilities. Data collection was carried out in both Bangladesh and India. Both qualitative and quantitative data collection was done in Bangladesh,. As entry into the ports in India was restricted, only qualitative methods were used there. A total of 154 were interviewed with a quantitative questionnaire and 24 sailors participated in in-depth interviews. Focus group discussions (FGD) and Key Informant Interviews were conducted with selected community members such as doctors, Noujan Srameek Union members, and vendors. [46 Pages] Read More...

Journeys: Experiences of Nepalese and Bangladeshi cross border migrants living with HIV

Enhancing Mobile Population’s Access to HIV and AIDS Information (EMPHASIS), Services and Support is a 5-year project funded by Big Lottery Fund, UK. EMPHASIS is implemented in Nepal, India and Bangladesh to address AIDS related vulnerabilities of cross border populations who are moving between Bangladesh, India and Nepal EMPHASIS is an operations research project and one of the pioneer regional projects to address HIV and AIDS vulnerability among cross border populations. The project aims to address its goals through service provision,
capacity building of relevant partners/stakeholders, and advocacy through generating evidence. As part of generating evidence, EMPHASIS developed a research study to investigate the dynamics associated with accessing services for mobile groups who are already affected by HIV and AIDS. This study examines people and questions that were not covered by the EMPHASIS baseline survey that was previously conducted.

Three separate studies were conducted in Bangladesh, Nepal and India. Bangladesh and Nepal first initiated the study aiming to understand the dynamics of HIV infection among migrant populations and also to assess barriers to accessing services at source. In India the study was initiated later, to assess the barriers to accessing services at destination. The prime objective of the study was to present these barriers to services at the regional level among the regional stakeholders. Sharing the findings at South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) could be an important way to initiate dialogue between the governments of Nepal and India to formalize a cross border referral system. Country specific barriers to services will be provided as evidence to inform policy at the national level. [45 Pages] Read More...

Vulnerability to HIV & AIDS: A social Research on Cross Border Mobile Population from Bangladesh to India

There are a growing number of people migrating between Bangladesh, Nepal and India. Mobility has long been linked with heightened vulnerability to HIV & AIDS. While overall
HIV prevalence is low in Bangladesh and Nepal, there is a growing concern that vulnerable mobile populations are forming a bridge between high prevalence areas of India and low prevalence areas in Bangladesh and Nepal. Enhancing Mobile Populations’ Access to HIV & AIDS Services Information and Support (EMPHASIS) is a regional program being implemented by CARE Bangladesh, CARE India and CARE Nepal and led by CARE International UK (CIUK) to reduce AIDS related vulnerabilities among mobile populations crossing the borders of Bangladesh and Nepal into India. This 5-year (August 2009 – July 2014) program, is funded by the Big Lottery Fund (BIG) of United Kingdom.

Baseline Research on cross border migration was initiated to understand the drivers of mobility, access to services for migrants at source and destination, and to understand the risk and vulnerabilities associated with migration and HIV & AIDS. The study was conducted using quantitative methods and a separate qualitative study was conducted to enhance and complement the quantitative data. [57 Pages] Read More...

EXAMINING WOMEN AND GIRLS’ SAFE SPACES (WGSS) IN HUMANITARIAN CONTEXTS: Research Findings from Northwest Syria and South Sudan

Gender-based violence (GBV) in humanitarian contexts represents a global issue of grave concern, disproportionately affecting women and girls. In light of its detrimental impact on the health, well-being and development of survivors, the international community has placed a strong priority on combatting and responding to GBV in all its forms.
Women and Girls’ Safe Spaces (WGSS) are among the most widely implemented GBV prevention and response programming interventions globally. In spite of their popularity and potential to increase the well-being, safety, and empowerment of women and girls, there is a lack of rigorous evidence regarding the role of these spaces in the lives of participants. Building an evidence base is particularly crucial in order to understand the impact and effectiveness of WGSS as an intervention and determine ways in which existing programming can be adapted to increase overall quality.
In response to the crucial need for evidence around WGSS programming globally, CARE USA conducted a study to examine the effectiveness of WGSS in the lives of women and girls in two conflict-affected settings, Northwest Syria and South Sudan. These locations are particularly relevant for this research as the selected study sites are home to a large number of internally displaced persons (IDPs), and are settings in which women and girls face a significant risk of experiencing GBV. These contexts are also ones in which CARE has existing WGSS interventions in place. Read More...

CASH AND VOUCHER ASSISTANCE IN RESPONSE TO THE COVID-19 PANDEMIC

In April 2020, CARE received a five million dollar grant from MARS to implement a multi-country program, including Cote d’Ivoire, Ecuador, Ghana, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, India, Peru, Thailand, and Venezuela1, with the aim of reducing the negative impacts of COVID-19 on vulnerable populations, especially women and girls, using complementary and multimodal approaches. A key activity of this program was the provision of cash and voucher assistance (CVA) to vulnerable populations to meet their diverse basic needs. Program data indicated that CVA was implemented in Cote d’Ivoire, Ecuador, Ghana, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, and Thailand. Monitoring data from different countries showed that CVA was unconditional; with cash modality representing 95% of transfers. Key targets populations for CVA activities vary by country and include: vulnerable households (Cote d’Ivoire, and Haiti); migrants and refugees (Honduras, Ecuador, and Thailand); domestic workers (Guatemala and Ecuador); survivors of GBV and other forms of violence against women (Guatemala and Ecuador); and lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, intersex, and queer/questioning (LGBTQI+) individuals (Ecuador). Across all projects (or countries), participants reported numerous uses of CVA including purchase foods stuff, payment of health services, hygiene services, rental/housing, savings and livelihoods activities.
Given the nature and scale of this program as well as its organizational commitment to learning, CARE was keen to understand the extent to which the project supported and protected vulnerable populations against the loss or disruption of their livelihoods in a gender sensitive manner. The study seeks to provide open-source learnings for peer
companies and agencies on how CVA was utilized in this program with two major questions: (i) How gender sensitive was the process for CARE’s CVA? (ii) How gender sensitive was the intended outcome of CARE’s CVA?
This documentation report compiles lessons from across the projects implemented in the targeted countries and draws from the diversity of their experiences to provide some recommendations on more gender sensitive CVA in the future. Read More...

Nepal Second Phase COVID-19 RGA

Nepal is currently undergoing the devastating effects of the second wave of COVID-19 pandemic. With the unprecedented surge in COVID-19 infections, the government of Nepal imposed prohibitory orders since April 29 in Kathmandu valley. Similarly, District Administration Offices (DAOs) in 75 out of 77 districts in the country have enforced prohibitory orders to break the chain of COVID-19 spread.1 As the country is reeling under the weight of increasing infections and death rates with fragile health infrastructure, there has been less attention to and evidence on gender and socio-economic impacts of the crisis on the most vulnerable and marginalized populations.
Global evidence from the previous year suggests that the pandemic led to disruption of social, political and economic systems and deepening of pre-existing gender and social inequalities. UN study 2020 highlights that the distribution of effect of any disaster or emergency correlates with the access to resources, capabilities, and opportunities which systematically make certain groups more vulnerable to the impact of emergencies, in particular women and girls.2 Women and girls in Nepal are particularly vulnerable to the immediate and long-term health and socio-economic impacts of the pandemic because of the pervasive inequalities in gender norms and structures.
The RGA conducted by CARE Nepal in partnership with Ministry of Women, Children and Senior Citizens (MoWCSC), UNWOMEN and Save the Children Women 2020 had shown that women’s unpaid care work and unequal division of labor were exacerbated because of closure of schools, public spaces, and care services. In addition, men’s loss of jobs and income and use of savings on gambling and alcohol had led to increased household conflict and women’s vulnerability to domestic violence. The study also revealed that 83 per cent of respondents lost their jobs; the hardest hit among them being women working as daily wage workers. The pandemic had also aggravated intimate partners and gender based violence for women and girls especially from marginalized groups such as Dalits, gender and sexual minorities (LGBTIQ++), women with disabilities, and adolescent girls. Read More...

Republic of Fiji Tropical Cyclone Josie and Tropical Cyclone Keni Rapid Gender, Protection and Inclusion Analysis

In early April 2018 TC Josie (Category 1) hit the western and central parts of Fiji causing flooding, particularly on the main island of Vitu Levu in the Western Division. One week later, on 10 April, Tropical Cyclone Keni passed close to Viti Levu as a Category 3 system overnight compounding the impact of TC Josie. In the Western Division, TCs Josie and Keni have affected an estimated 77,140 people while In the Northern division, 700 people are estimated to have been affected. The storm also affected the Eastern Division, particularly on Kadavu Island. There were 5 confirmed deaths1 and one report of a missing person2 from these events. Initial assessments report a total of 12,000 people sought shelter at 202 evacuation centres on the night of the storm in all divisions. As of 27 April, all evacuation centres in the Western and Northern Divisions were closed, while 21 evacuation centres were still in operation in Kadavu Province in the Eastern Division housing 476 evacuees3. Read More...

Solomon Islands Rennell Island Oil Spill Rapid Social Impact Assessment March 2019

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“Because She Is Important” Concrete Actions for Gender Equity in Rural WASH: Solomon Islands

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Gender and food security in Fiji A community-based gender analysis in Macuata Province, Vanua Levu

This report presents the results of a community-based gender and food security analysis that was carried out by ADRA Fiji in partnership with CARE International with funding from the WPHF, administered and supported by UN Women. The main purpose of the gender analysis is to gain a better understanding of the varying gender dynamics and socio-cultural contexts that can positively and negatively impact household and community food security and resilience in the context of climate change and disasters.
The findings and recommendations of the analysis are intended to strengthen the gender equality impacts of ADRA Fiji’s Vakarau Wai 1 Pro-Resilience Project, as well as inform the agency’s other programming. As part of the wider project the intention is also to more broadly share and discuss the findings to strengthen awareness among food security and livelihood stakeholders that localised social and gender context analysis is critical to ensure effective and sustainable food security in Fiji’s ever-changing climate environment and to also ensure food security and livelihoods (FSL) initiatives, foster gender equality and support women’s meaningful participation in decision-making in homes and communities across Fiji.
For this study data was collected and analysed from two communities, an iTaukei village and a settlement largely comprised of Fijians of Indian descent in Macuata Province, Vanua Levu. The aim was to identify gender specific needs, vulnerabilities and capacities, particularly among high risk and marginalised groups, and how these dimensions affect food security and household and community resilience and women’s empowerment. A total of 71 people (35 female and 36 males) ranging in age from 20 – 83 years old contributed their views for this study, including six people with impairments (four with difficulty walking and two with varying levels of visual impairment), as well as four widows and two widowers. Data was collected in relation to four core areas of inquiry namely: access to and control over resources, gender roles and divisions of labour, household decision-making, and participation in public decision-making, using focus group discussions and key informant interviews, along with several transect walks. Read More...

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