Gender Equality

The crisis we can still avert

By September of 2022, the global food crisis had gotten so extreme that 205.1 million people urgently need humanitarian food assistance just to survive. Tragically, if we do nothing, the crisis could grow by another 620.9 million people in the next 6 months. That is the crisis we can still avert. Investing in food production, increasing resilience, and functioning markets can stave off this crisis if we act fast.

A recent report from Gro Intelligence and CRU Group estimates that the impacts from the Ukraine crisis on nitrogen fertilizer availability in the global agriculture system will lead to a total loss of 72 trillion calories of food produced in 2022 alone. That loss would cause 620.9 million MORE people who are already struggling to meet their basic food needs to lose at least one more meal a day for the next 6 months. This is the crisis that is coming—growing the current crisis by more than three times higher the 205.1 million people already experiencing food crisis.

Gender inequality will play a significant role in this crisis. Based on current trends in gender equality and food security, 332.8 million of these people will be women. That means 44.7 million more women than men could miss one meal a day for the next 6 months. Women could miss 8.5 billion more meals than men.

This is not a foregone conclusion. We can still act to prevent the worst of the crisis. The number of calories lost is only part of the story. Food insecurity is as much as story of inequality as it is of food production. Read More...

Making the Invisible Visible – An evidence-based analysis of gender in the regional response to the war in Ukraine

The escalation of the war in Ukraine began on 24 February 2022, causing thousands of civilian casualties; destroying civilian infrastructure, including hospitals, and triggering the fastest growing displacement crisis in Europe since World War II. The demographic profile of Ukraine, combined with the implementation of martial law and conscription policies, led to an awareness of gender- and age-related factors within the regional humanitarian response that recognised the pre-crisis situation of persons of all genders and diversities and how the war and subsequent regional crise s were compounding the risks that they face.

From the early days of the response, Rapid Gender Analyses (RGA) and other analyses and assessments were conducted, and the Regional Gender Task Force (RGTF) recognised the emergence of common themes and concerns within these that required a closer examination. It was identified that the solutions to the concerns identified required national, regional and cross-border solutions rooted in broad changes in policy and the humanitarian architecture. However, at the time, gender themes, including trends, gaps and specific challenges faced by women and men belonging to different socio-economic and ethnic groups, across the
humanitarian and refugee response in the region had not been captured adequately. Read More...

Aplicación de la herramienta del Interagency Standing Committee (IASC) en proveedores de Centros de Salud Mental Comunitario y Centros Emergencia Mujer

Implementar el levantamiento y procesamiento de información sobre conocimientos, actitudes y habilidades prácticas para la gestión de casos de personas migrantes y refugiadas sobrevivientes de violencia de género. Read More...

Somali Girls Education Promotion Project Transition (SOMGEP-T) Baseline

CARE International launched SOMGEP and, following its successful completion, continued its programming through Somali Girls’ Education Promotion Project – Transition (SOMGEP-T). The project, which began on May 1 2017 and is expected to close on October 31 2021, builds on evidence from SOMGEP and seeks to further address barriers and challenges Somali girls face related to attendance and learning outcomes. At proposal stage, the project was expected to reach a total of 27,146 marginalised girls; calculations based on up to date enrolment data indicate that the project is estimated to reach 27,722 in-school girls across 148 primary schools and 53 secondary schools in Somaliland, Puntland, and Galmudug, as well as 5,140 out-of-school girls in the same locations.
SOMGEP-T aims to bring about sustainable improvements to the learning and transition outcomes of marginalised Somali girls. To address barriers and the causes of marginalisation, the SOMGEP-T Theory of Change (ToC) focuses on four key outputs: (1) Improved access to post-primary options, (2) Supportive school practices and conditions for marginalised girls, (3) Positive shifts on gender and social norms at community and individual girl level, and (4) Enhanced MoEs’ capacity to deliver quality and relevant formal and informal education. Outputs are expected to contribute to the achievement of the project’s four intermediate outcomes of attendance, retention, improved quality of teaching, and life skills development, which will in turn contribute to the long-term goals of improving learning outcomes, boosting transition rates, and ensuring the sustainability of changes brought about by the project.
The SOMGEP-T evaluation uses a mixed-methods, quasi-experimental design, involving a longitudinal panel of girls with a non-randomly assigned comparison group. The baseline sample comprises 76 schools, with 38 intervention schools and 38 comparison schools. The primary findings from the evaluation are summarised below. Read More...

Somali Girls Education Promotion Project – Transition (SOMGEP-T) Midline Round 2

The long-term goal of SOMGEP-T is to bring about sustainable improvements to the learning and transition outcomes of marginalised Somali girls. Marginalised girls who are targeted under SOMGEP-T are expected to exhibit meaningful improvements in learning outcomes (literacy, numeracy, and financial literacy) and transition outcomes (transition rate) as compared to a comparison group; targeted schools, communities and government institutions are expected to demonstrate indications of sustainability. The project targets the underlying causes of marginalization, specifically through influencing stakeholder attitudes and promoting social change at the household, school, community and policy/governance levels.

Three general observations emerge from the aggregate learning analysis. The first is the program’s apparent impact on financial literacy. When using the pure longitudinal panel of all the individuals who overlap between Baseline and Midline Round 2, the impact is a substantive 8.4 percentage in favour of intervention schools. Secondly, increases in numeracy outcomes are systematically higher among intervention girls. The panel consisting of girls who have been enrolled since baseline has improved their results on average by 4.6 points more than the comparison group since the baseline. This divergence has almost entirely occurred between the two midline evaluation rounds, likely because impacts of the program in this regard are not immediate. Thirdly, despite indications of program impact in financial literacy and numeracy, literacy outcomes in comparison schools have often shown more marked improvement than intervention schools since the baseline. Read More...

Somali Girls Education Promotion Program Transition (SOMGEP-T) Midline

Despite ongoing efforts, learning outcomes in Somalia remain among the lowest in the region, particularly for girls. Boys and girls contend with different gender and social norms that tend to undermine their ability to stay in school, study and advance from grade to grade. Girls in Somalia are living in an environment undergoing deep transitions in social and gender norms, where traditional norms expecting women to primarily care for children in the home and assume responsibility for household tasks, and placing little value or emphasis on education for women coexist with new roles for women as entrepreneurs, heads of household and main breadwinners at home, thus increasing demand on girls’ education. Since the time of the baseline, rural-rural migration has increased, predominantly as a result of economic hardship that has persisted among households that have been most heavily affected by drought. At the level of national government, MoE personnel tend to change frequently, leading to lack of continuity over time, but there is also increased funding for educational initiatives. It is in this context that CARE International launched SOMGEP and, following its successful completion, continued its programming through Somali Girls’ Education Promotion Project – Transition (SOMGEP-T). The project, which began on May 1 2017 and is expected to close on October 31 2021, builds on evidence from SOMGEP and seeks to further address barriers and challenges Somali girls face related to attendance and learning outcomes. At proposal stage, the project was expected to reach a total of 27,146 marginalised girls; calculations based on up to date enrolment data indicate that the project is estimated to reach 27,722 in-school girls across 148 primary schools and 53 secondary schools in 22 target districts in Somaliland, Puntland, and Galmudug, as well as 5,140 out-of-school girls in the same locations.
SOMGEP-T aims to bring about sustainable improvements to the learning and transition outcomes of marginalised Somali girls. To address barriers and the causes of marginalisation, the SOMGEP-T Theory of Change (ToC) focuses on four key outputs: (1) Improved access to post-primary options, (2) Supportive school practices and conditions for marginalised girls, (3) Positive shifts on gender and social norms at community and individual girl level, and (4) Enhanced MoEs’ capacity to deliver quality and relevant formal and informal education. Outputs are expected to contribute to the achievement of the project’s four intermediate outcomes of attendance, retention, improved quality of teaching, and life skills development, which will in turn contribute to the long-term goals of improving learning outcomes, boosting transition rates, and ensuring the sustainability of changes brought about by the project.
The SOMGEP-T evaluation uses a mixed-methods, quasi-experimental design, involving a longitudinal panel of girls with a non-randomly assigned comparison group. The present study describes the results after four months of exposure to the intervention for in-school girls and presents the baseline findings for girls attending an alternative learning program (ALP). The midline sample comprises 63 schools, with 32 intervention schools and 31 comparison schools, plus 32 ALP sites (17 shared with the midline sample, 15 unique to the ALP sample). The primary findings from the evaluation are summarised below. Read More...

Somali Girls Education Promotion Project Transition (SOMGEP-T) Endline Evaluation

The Somali Girls’ Education Promotion Project – Transition (SOMGEP-T), funded by UK’s Foreign and Commonwealth Development Office (FCDO) and USAID, was implemented from 2017-2022 in rural and remote areas of Somaliland, Puntland, and Galmudug, reaching an estimated 20,000 girls and 10,000 boys directly and another 20,000 students through indirect benefits. The implementation of SOMGEP-T followed on the successes of SOMGEP (2013-17, funded by FCDO), with a particular focus on enhancing learning outcomes and transition rates for marginalised adolescent girls. SOMGEP-T was implemented by a consortium formed by CARE International, ADRA, local women’s rights network NAGAAD, and local non-governmental organisations HAVOYOCO (a youth-led committee) and TASS. The project’s activities were conducted in close collaboration with state- and national-level Ministries of Education, responding to priority areas identified in state and Federal-level sector development plans.
SOMGEP-T used a mixed-methods, quasi-experimental design for impact measurement. The endline evaluation sample included 69 primary schools, split between 37 intervention and 32 comparison schools. Additionally, a pre-post evaluation design was used to assess progress on accelerated education programming. Data collection took place in an additional 32 Alternative Learning Programme (ALP) centres and 35 Accelerated Basic Education (ABE) centres, which are located in the same communities as SOMGEP-T intervention schools. In total, the endline sample included 1,802 girls and their households, 965 of whom were re-contacted from the baseline and interviewed successfully. The endline data collection took place in December 2021.
Learning
A few key findings emerged from the learning analysis. Firstly, although improvements were observed in numeracy, Somali literacy, English literacy, and financial literacy amongst girls in intervention schools, these improvements were also simultaneously observed in girls in comparison schools. Secondly, learning improvements occurred largely within the first two years of the programme, prior to the ML2 evaluation – a finding which can largely be attributed to the COVID-19 pandemic and the resulting long-running school closures that occurred between the ML2 and endline evaluations.
At the endline, it became evident that SOMGEP-T had a much larger impact on learning among a few specific groups of ultra-marginalised girls, especially those marginalised along multiple overlapping axes, such as girls from relatively poor or pastoralist households who were out-of-school at the baseline, girls with physical disabilities, and the lowest-performing students at the baseline. For instance, girls from pastoralist households who were out-of-school at baseline gained an average of 10.8 percentage points in Somali literacy, over and above the comparison group. A similar, but less stark, pattern was observed in average numeracy scores (3.9 percentage points over and above the comparison group). In both cases gains among this subgroup were larger than among other out-of-school girls or pastoralist girls who were already in school when the programme started. Read More...

Expanding Learning on the Effectiveness of Integrating Gender-based Violence Prevention, Mitigation, and Response and Cash and Voucher Assistance

This program aimed to include adult women and men, aged 18 years or older, who were survivors of or at risk of GBV, including those with diverse SOGIESC and those living with a disability or disabilities. CORPRODINCO caseworkers were all female and enrolled survivors who voluntarily disclosed an incident of GBV. Caseworkers assessed participants’ need for cash assistance for protection, examining the economic drivers of their exposure to GBV risks, as well as the financial barriers to their recovery; this process took place according to the program’s standard operating procedures, which were aligned with best practice guidance and tools. Survivors who met the program’s eligibility criteria and were enrolled were guided through the steps of the cash referral during GBV case management by their caseworker. Read More...

Enhancing adaptive capacity of women and ethnic smallholder farmers through improved agro-climate information in Mai and Samphanh district, Phongsaly Province, Laos

The Agro-Climate Information for the Adoption of Resilient Farming Practices by Women and Ethnic Minority Farmers (ACIS2) is implemented by CARE International in Lao PDR. The project financed by the Ministry of the Environment, Climate and Sustainable Development (MECDD) in Luxembourg, is designed to support poor and vulnerable households in remote, rural areas and to enable women and ethnic minority farmers in Mai and Samphanh districts (Phongsaly province) to better anticipate risks and opportunities related to climate variability thus improving their response through participatory and equitable agro-climatic planning. The project’s aim is to contribute to SDG 13 by increasing climate resilience of women and ethnic minority farmers in northern Laos.
The purpose of the evaluation was to determine the project’s success in implementing activities and in attaining the project’s goals and expected results. The ACIS2 has implemented a wide variety of activities to increase the resilience of ethnic communities to climate change and climate variability. The project has been successful in achieving its objectives and expected results. Project provide the weather forecast and agriculture advisory and support for cardamom production, intercropping galangal, pineapple, fruit trees, bee keeping, vegetable gardening, improved rice production and support to women’s savings and loans groups which has resulted in reducing the impact of climatic hazards and improving farmers’ incomes.
Read More...

Contributing to sustainable food production in Cuban municipalities – PROSAM.

The emphasis of the project is on strengthening the capacities of the Agricultural Municipal Delegations (DMA), the Soil Institute, and the producers, their productive forms, to promote local food self-sufficiency in the municipalities of Artemisa, Bejucal, Guanabacoa, Güines and Madruga located in the Provinces of Artemisa, Havana, and Mayabeque; as well as the promotion of sustainable environmental technologies and agro-ecologies and the mainstreaming of the gender practices approach that guarantees the full participation of women through equitable access and control of project resources in terms of inputs, equipment, and knowledge. Appropriating the work for gender equality in the daily life of the Soil Institute is essential for the coherence of its leadership with the different actors involved in the project. Read More...

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